ਮਦਦ:ਯੂਨਾਨੀ ਲਈ IPA

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.  Today, pronunciation of Ancient Greek is mostly based on Erasmian pronunciation. However, native Greek speakers use Modern Greek pronunciations for Ancient Greek words and phrases.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

 
Consonants
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
 ῾ h ἥρως [hɛ̌ːrɔːs], [ˈiros] hero (Ancient Greek only)
β b v βίος [ˈvios] vet
γ ɡ ɣ  γάλα [ˈɣala]  No English equivalent
ʝ[੧]  γη [ʝi]  yellow
δ d ð  δῆμος [dɛ̂ːmos], [ðimos] then
ζ dz[੨] z  ζώνη [ˈzoni] zero
θ θ  θεολογία [θeoloˈʝia] thing
κ k k  καλός [kaˈlos] sky
c[੧] κύκλος [ˈciklos] somewhat like key
λ l l  λεξικό [leksiˈko] lie
ʎ[੩]  ελιά [e̞ˈʎa] million
μ m  μηχανικός [mixaniˈkos] mine
ν n n νέος [ˈneos] nine
ɲ[੩] νιότη [ˈɲoti] onion
ξ ks  ξενοφοβία [ksenofoˈvia] tax
π p  πρόγραμμα [ˈproɣrama] spy
ρ r r[੪]  ρητορική [ritoriˈci] trilled r, as in Italian and Spanish
[੫]  
σ[੬] s  σύστημα [ˈsistima] sea
τ t  τηλέφωνο [tiˈlefono] step
φ f  φαινόμενο [feˈnomeno] fly
χ x χάος [ˈxaos] loch (Scottish)
ç[੧]  χειρόγραφος [çiˈroɣrafos] (often) human
ψ ps  ψυχοθεραπεία [psixoθeraˈpia] tips
γγ ŋɡ ŋɡ, ŋɣ[੭]  αγγούρι [aŋˈɡuri]/συγγραφέας [siŋɣraˈfeas] finger
ɲɟ, ɲʝ[੧][੭]  άγγελος [ˈaɲɟelos]/εγγενής [eɲʝeˈnis] angel
γκ ŋk ɡ, ŋɡ[੭]  εγκώμιο [eŋˈɡomio] good, finger
ɟ, ɲɟ[੧][੭]  εγκυκλοπαίδεια [eɲɟikloˈpeðia] argue, angular
γχ ŋkʰ ŋx[੭]  άγχος [ˈaŋxos] often ankh
ɲç[੧][੭] εγχείριση [eɲˈçirisi] sometimes ankhes
γξ ŋks ŋks  έλεγξα [ˈeleŋksa] thanks
μπ b, mb[੭]  εμπάθεια [emˈbaθia] book, amble
ντ d, nd[੭]  εντάξει [enˈdaksi] duck, under
τσ ts  τσάι [ˈtsai] cats
τζ dz  τζαζ [ˈdzaz] pads
Vowels
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
α a a αλφάβητο [alˈfavito] tar, spa
αι aj e between bet and bait
ε e ενέργεια [eˈnerʝia]
ει i[੮][੯] ενέργεια [eˈnerʝia] seem
η ɛː ηθική [iθiˈci]
ι i  ιστορία [istoˈria]
υ[੧੦] y υγιεινή [iʝiiˈni]
οι oj οικονομία [ikonoˈmia]
υι uj υιός [iˈos]
ο o o οργανισμός [orɣanizˈmos] hope
ω ɔː ώρα [ˈora]
αυ aw av, af αύρα [ˈavra] /αυθεντικός [afθendiˈkos] [a] then [v] / [f]
ευ ew ev, ef ευρώπη [evˈropi] / ευφορία [efoˈria] [] then [v] / [f]
ηυ ɛːw iv, if εφηύρα [eˈfivra] / ηυξημένος [ifksiˈmenos] [i] then [v] / [f]
ου u ουτοπία [utoˈpia] boot
Stress and tone
IPA Examples
Ancient Greek
á Acute: High tone on short vowels
ǎː Acute: Rising tone on long vowels and diphthongs
a   Grave: low tone ([à])
âː Circumflex: Falling tone on long vowels and diphthongs
Modern Greek
ˈa άλλος
[ˈalos]
Stress mark: placed before the stressed syllable or vowel.
Represented in monotonic orthography by tonos.
Occurs on one of final three syllables, including any enclitics.

Notes[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. ੧.੦ ੧.੧ ੧.੨ ੧.੩ ੧.੪ ੧.੫ ‹γ›, ‹κ›, ‹χ›, ‹γγ›, ‹γκ›, ‹γχ› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲɟ ɲç] only before the front vowels [i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
  2. Also may have been /zd/.
  3. ੩.੦ ੩.੧ [ʎ] and  [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of /li/ and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography.  Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/.  If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
  4. May be a tap [ɾ] intervocalically.
  5. May have been /rʰ/.
  6. ‹σ› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] e.g.: Σμήνος [ˈzminos]
  7. ੭.੦ ੭.੧ ੭.੨ ੭.੩ ੭.੪ ੭.੫ ੭.੬ ੭.੭ γκ, μπ, ντ usually represent [ŋɡ~ɲɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [ɡ~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. e.g.: αμπέλι [amˈbeli], μπαμπάς [baˈbas]
  8. The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is called Iotacism.
  9. Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (e.g.: γιαγιά [ʝaˈʝa], κιόλας [ˈcolas], χιόνι [ˈçoni], μαγκιά [maˈɟa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (e.g.: χέρια [ˈcerʝa], βαριέμαι [varˈʝeme]) and [ç] follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s t͡s] (e.g.: καρφιά [karfˈça], ποιος [pços], ρεβύθια [reˈviθça]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (e.g.: μια [mɲa], καλαμιά [kalaˈmɲa]
  10. When following a vowel, ‹υ› represents a pronunciation with [f] before ‹θ›, ‹κ›, ‹ξ›, ‹π›, ‹σ›, ‹τ›, ‹φ›, ‹χ›, ‹ψ›, and a pronunciation with [v] elsewhere.

External links[ਸੋਧੋ]