ਮਦਦ:ਯੂਨਾਨੀ ਲਈ IPA

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.  Today, pronunciation of Ancient Greek is mostly based on Erasmian pronunciation. However, native Greek speakers use Modern Greek pronunciations for Ancient Greek words and phrases.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

 
Consonants
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
 ῾ ἥρως , hero (Ancient Greek only)
β βίος vet
γ  γάλα  No English equivalent
[੧]  γη  yellow
δ  δῆμος , then
ζ [੨]  ζώνη zero
θ  θεολογία thing
κ  καλός sky
[੧] κύκλος somewhat like key
λ  λεξικό lie
[੩]  ελιά million
μ  μηχανικός mine
ν νέος nine
[੩] νιότη onion
ξ ks  ξενοφοβία tax
π  πρόγραμμα spy
ρ [੪]  ρητορική trilled r, as in Italian and Spanish
[੫]  
σ[੬]  σύστημα sea
τ  τηλέφωνο step
φ  φαινόμενο fly
χ χάος loch (Scottish)
[੧]  χειρόγραφος (often) human
ψ  ψυχοθεραπεία tips
γγ [੭]  αγγούρι /συγγραφέας finger
[੧][੭]  άγγελος /εγγενής angel
γκ , [੭]  εγκώμιο good, finger
, [੧][੭]  εγκυκλοπαίδεια argue, angular
γχ [੭]  άγχος often ankh
[੧][੭] εγχείριση sometimes ankhes
γξ  έλεγξα thanks
μπ , [੭]  εμπάθεια book, amble
ντ , [੭]  εντάξει duck, under
τσ  τσάι cats
τζ  τζαζ pads
Vowels
Greek
alphabet
IPA Examples English equivalent
for Modern Greek
Anc. Mod.
α αλφάβητο tar, spa
αι between bet and bait
ε ενέργεια
ει [੮][੯] ενέργεια seem
η ηθική
ι  ιστορία
υ[੧੦] υγιεινή
οι οικονομία
υι υιός
ο οργανισμός hope
ω ώρα
αυ αύρα /αυθεντικός then /
ευ ευρώπη / ευφορία then /
ηυ εφηύρα / ηυξημένος then /
ου ουτοπία boot
Stress and tone
IPA Examples
Ancient Greek
Acute: High tone on short vowels
Acute: Rising tone on long vowels and diphthongs
  Grave: low tone ()
Circumflex: Falling tone on long vowels and diphthongs
Modern Greek
άλλος
Stress mark: placed before the stressed syllable or vowel.
Represented in monotonic orthography by tonos.
Occurs on one of final three syllables, including any enclitics.

Notes[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. ੧.੦ ੧.੧ ੧.੨ ੧.੩ ੧.੪ ੧.੫ ‹γ›, ‹κ›, ‹χ›, ‹γγ›, ‹γκ›, ‹γχ› represent palatal only before the front vowels and . The velar and palatal series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
  2. Also may have been .
  3. ੩.੦ ੩.੧ and   are usually analysed as clusters of and respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography.  Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/.  If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
  4. May be a tap intervocalically.
  5. May have been .
  6. ‹σ› represents before e.g.: Σμήνος
  7. ੭.੦ ੭.੧ ੭.੨ ੭.੩ ੭.੪ ੭.੫ ੭.੬ ੭.੭ γκ, μπ, ντ usually represent when found in the middle of a Greek word, when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. e.g.: αμπέλι , μπαμπάς
  8. The large number of mergers into Modern Greek is called Iotacism.
  9. Letters normally representing can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar , palatal occur (e.g.: γιαγιά , κιόλας , χιόνι , μαγκιά . A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; follows voiced consonants (e.g.: χέρια , βαριέμαι ) and follows voiceless consonants (e.g.: καρφιά , ποιος , ρεβύθια ). Similarly follows under similar situations (e.g.: μια , καλαμιά
  10. When following a vowel, ‹υ› represents a pronunciation with before ‹θ›, ‹κ›, ‹ξ›, ‹π›, ‹σ›, ‹τ›, ‹φ›, ‹χ›, ‹ψ›, and a pronunciation with elsewhere.

External links[ਸੋਧੋ]