ਮਦਦ:ਰੋਮਾਨੀਆਈ ਲਈ IPA

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Romanian language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Romanian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Romanian and Romanian alphabet for the correspondence between spelling and pronunciation.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b ban boy
d dop day
d͡ʒ[੧] ger jeep
f foc face
ɡ gol, unghie good
h horn hat
k cal, chip, kilogram, quasar skip
l lună love
m mic moon
n nor name
ŋ[੨] lung long
p pas span
r[੩] rac, mare roughly like water (American English)
s sare sun
ʃ șarpe shape
t tare stop
t͡s[੧] țară cats
t͡ʃ[੧] cer texture
v val, watt voice
z zid zone
ʒ jar measure
Marginal consonants
ɲ Saligny roughly like canyon
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a a roughly like father
e[੪] erou roughly like bet
ə ăsta about
i inel, mie beet
ɨ înspre, cârnat/cîrnat roses (for some dialects)
o[੪] oraș law (British English)
u uda, dual soon
Marginal vowels
ø[੪] bleu, loess roughly like sir
y ecru, fürer roughly like few
ɑ̃ Henri roughly like croissant
 
Semivowels[੫]
IPA Examples English approximation
j iarnă, creioane, rai, yacht you or boy
w băcăuan, dulău, tweeter wine or cow
Diphthongs[੫]
e̯a beată short ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink followed by full ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink
e̯o vreo short ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink followed by full ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink
o̯a foarte, găoace short ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink followed by full ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink
 
Other symbols
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ dulău [duˈləw] Main stress (placed before the stressed syllable)
ˌ extraordinar [ˌekstra.ordiˈnar] Secondary stress
. mie [ˈmi.e] Syllable marker, generally used between vowels in hiatus
ʲ rupi [ˈrupʲ] Palatalization (placed after the palatalized consonant)

Notes[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. ੧.੦ ੧.੧ ੧.੨ The affricates are correctly written with tie-bars: ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink, ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink, ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink. As the tie-bars display incorrectly with some fonts, they are often omitted. However, these affricates contrast with the plosive-fricative sequences ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink, ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink and ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink. Usually the spelling of the Romanian word indicates the pronunciation, with the affricates spelled ț, c, g, with one letter, and the sequences ts, tș, dj, with two, but this is not always the case, especially in personal names.
  2. Not a separate phoneme, but an allophone of /n/ before velars.
  3. Intervocalic /r/ may be pronounced as a flap ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink.
  4. ੪.੦ ੪.੧ ੪.੨ The Romanian [e], [o] and [ø] are in fact realized as mid vowels: [e̞], [o̞], [ø̞]. In phonetic transcriptions, however, the lowering diacritic is usually omitted for simplicity.
  5. ੫.੦ ੫.੧ The approximants /j/ and /w/ can appear before and after vowels, including the diphthongs /e̯a/ and /o̯a/, in almost any combination.

See also[ਸੋਧੋ]

References[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Chițoran, Ioana (2001), The Phonology of Romanian: A Constraint-based Approach, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, ISBN 3110167662 

ਫਰਮਾ:IPA keys horizontal