ਮਦਦ:ਕੋਰੀਆਈ ਲਈ IPA

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Korean language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles, based on the standard dialect of South Korea.

See Korean phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Korean.

Korean consonants[ਸੋਧੋ]

IPA Hangul RR trans. English equivalent Notes
b [1] b ball between voiced sounds
ɕ s she before [i] or [j]
ɕ͈ ss see before [i] or [j]
d [2] d doll between voiced sounds
j gee between voiced sounds
ɡ g gall between voiced sounds
h h hall
j ㅖ, ㅒ, ㅑ,
ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅕ[3]
y y’all Spelled by doubling the short line on the vowel.
k ㄱ, ㅋ g, k skin ㅋ is [k] at the end of a syllable.
kk tense [k]
ㅋ, ㅎㄱ k call
l ㄹ, ㄴ l lip ㄹ is [l] at the end of a syllable.
ㄹㄴ and ㄴㄹ may be [ll].
m ㅁ, ㅂ m mall ㅂ is [m] before [n] or [m].
n ㄴ, ㄹ,
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ
n not ㄹ may be [n] at the start of a word.
ㄷ, ㅅ, ㅈ are [n] before [n] or [m].
ŋ ㅇ, ㄱ ng king ㅇ is only [ŋ] at the end of a syllable.
ㄱ is [ŋ] before [n], [m] or [ɾ]
p [1], ㅍ b, p span ㅍ is [p] at the end of a syllable.
[1] pp tense [p]
[1], ㅎㅂ p pall
ɾ r A flap, like Scots r or American ladder, between vowels
s [2] s Saul [s] with almost no sibilance
ss tense [s]
t [2]
ㄷ, ㅌ[2], ㅅ, ㅈ, ㅊ
d
t
stall All are [t] and RR t at the end of a syllable.
tt tense [t]
[2], ㅎㄷ t tall
j itchy
tɕ͈ jj tense []
tɕʰ ㅊ, ㅎㅈ ch cheek
w ㅜ, ㅗ w wall spelled ㅜ before [ʌ], [e], [i];
ㅗ before [ɛ], [e],* [a]
*ㅚ is pronounced [we] by most, but as the rounded ö vowel [ø] by some older speakers.

Korean vowels[ਸੋਧੋ]

IPA Hangul RR trans. Notes
a a spa
e e Similar to the beginning of the diphthong in main
ɛ ae met; similar to e for young speakers.
ɛː
i i mean
o o Spanish o or French eau
u u moon
ʌ eo young (these are pronounced [ɔ], as in more, in North Korea)
əː
ɯ eu Separate sound in Standard Korean; similar to eo for many dialects.
ɯː

Korean diphthongs[ਸੋਧੋ]

IPA Hangul RR trans. Notes
ɰi ui Only occurs in the first syllable of a word.

Sounds not written in hangul[ਸੋਧੋ]

IPA Explanation
ː Long vowel. Long [ʌ] is əː. Young speakers in Seoul do not use length consistently, if at all.
 ́ High tone, on any one syllable or the first two; used outside Seoul.

See also[ਸੋਧੋ]

References[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Sohn, (2001), p.2
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Sohn, (2001), p.3
  3. Lee, (2002), p.3

Bibliography[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • IPA (1949, 51, etc.). "The Principles of IPA". London.
  • Lee, H.B. (1971). "Preliminary Version of Korean Phonetic Alphabet" (in Korean), HanGeul Haghoe (the Korean Language SocietY), Seoul.
  • Lee, H.B. (1981), "IPA and Korean Phonetic Alphabet" (in Korean), Gwahagsa, Seoul.
  • Lee, H.B. (1992), "International Korean Phonetic Alphabet - Theory and Application-" .(in Korean) "Malsori" No. 21-24, The Phonetic Society of Korea.
  • Lee, H.B. (1999), "International Korean Phonetic Alphabet for Computers", International Conference on the Computer Processing of Korean Language, Yanbi an, China.
  • Lee, H.B. (1999). An IPA Illustration of Korean, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. IPA.
  • Lee, Hyun-Bok (1999) "Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: a guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet", Cambridge University Press, pp.121–123 ISBN 0521637511
  • Lee, Hyun-Bok (2004) "In search of a universal phonetic alphabet - theory and application of an organic visible speech-", In INTERSPEECH-2004, paper P3.
  • Sohn, Ho-min, (2006) "Korean language in culture and society" KLEAR textbooks in Korean language, University of Hawaii Press, pp.4–5. ISBN 0824826949

External links[ਸੋਧੋ]