ਕਲੌਡੀਅਸ ਟੋਲੇਮੀ

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ
ਟੋਲੇਮੀ

ਇੱਕ ਚਿੱਤਰ
ਜਨਮ c. 90 ਈ.
ਮਿਸਰ, ਰੋਮਨ ਸਾਮਰਾਜ
ਮੌਤ c.168
ਐਲੈਗਜ਼ੈਂਡ੍ਰੀਆ, ਮਿਸਰ, ਰੋਮਨ ਸਾਮਰਾਜ
ਕਿੱਤਾ ਗਣਿਤ ਸ਼ਾਸਤਰੀ, ਭੂਗੋਲ ਸ਼ਾਸਤਰੀ, ਤਾਰਾ ਵਿਗਿਆਨੀ, ਜੋਤਸ਼ੀ

ਕਲੌਡੀਅਸ ਟੋਲੇਮੀ, ਜਾਂ ਟੋਲੇਮੀ, ਇੱਕ ਰੋਮਨ ਸੀ ਜੋ ਮਿਸਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਰਹਿੰਦਾ ਸੀ। ਉਹ ਇੱਕ ਚੰਗਾ ਵਿਗਿਆਨੀ, ਭੂਗੋਲ ਸੋਧਕ, ਕਵੀ ਅਤੇ ਜੋਤਸ਼ੀ ਸੀ।[੧][੨]. ਉਸ ਦੀ ਮੌਤ ਐਲੈਗਜ਼ੈਂਡ੍ਰੀਆ ਵਿੱਚ ਹੋਈ। [੩]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਲਿਖ਼ਤਾਂ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Bagrow, L. (January 1, 1945). "The Origin of Ptolemy's Geographia". Geografiska Annaler 27: 318–387. doi:10.2307/520071. ISSN 16513215. 
  • Berggren, J. Lennart, and Alexander Jones. 2000. Ptolemy's Geography: An Annotated Translation of the Theoretical Chapters. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01042-0.
  • Campbell, T. (1987). The Earliest Printed Maps. British Museum Press. 
  • Hübner, Wolfgang, ed. 1998. Claudius Ptolemaeus, Opera quae exstant omnia Vol III/Fasc 1: ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΣΜΑΤΙΚΑ (= Tetrabiblos). De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-598-71746-8 (Bibliotheca scriptorum Graecorum et Romanorum Teubneriana). (The most recent edition of the Greek text of Ptolemy's astrological work, based on earlier editions by F. Boll and E. Boer.)
  • Neugebauer, Otto (1975). A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy I-III. Berlin and New York: Sprnger Verlag. 
  • Nobbe, C. F. A., ed. 1843. Claudii Ptolemaei Geographia. 3 vols. Leipzig: Carolus Tauchnitus. (The most recent edition of the complete Greek text)
  • Ptolemy. 1930. Die Harmonielehre des Klaudios Ptolemaios, edited by Ingemar Düring. Göteborgs högskolas årsskrift 36, 1930:1. Göteborg: Elanders boktr. aktiebolag. Reprint, New York: Garland Publishing, 1980.
  • Ptolemy. 2000. Harmonics, translated and commentary by Jon Solomon. Mnemosyne, Bibliotheca Classica Batava, Supplementum, 0169-8958, 203. Leiden and Boston: Brill Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11591-9
  • Ptolemy. 1940. Tetrabiblos, compiled and edited by F. E. Robbins , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (Loeb Classical Library).
  • Stevenson, Edward Luther (trans. and ed.). 1932. Claudius Ptolemy: The Geography. New York: New York Public Library. Reprint, New York: Dover, 1991. (This is the only complete English translation of Ptolemy's most famous work. Unfortunately, it is marred by numerous mistakes and the placenames are given in Latinised forms, rather than in the original Greek).
  • Stückelberger, Alfred, and Gerd Graßhoff (eds). 2006. Ptolemaios, Handbuch der Geographie, Griechisch-Deutsch. 2 vols. Basel: Schwabe Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7965-2148-5. (Massive 1018 pp. scholarly edition by a team of a dozen scholars that takes account of all known manuscripts, with facing Greek and German text, footnotes on manuscript variations, color maps, and a CD with the geographical data)
  • Taub, Liba Chia (1993). Ptolemy's Universe: The Natural Philosophical and Ethical Foundations of Ptolemy's Astronomy. Chicago: Open Court Press. ISBN 0-8126-9229-2. 

ਬਾਹਰਲੇ ਲਿੰਕ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. Select Epigrams from the Greek Anthology By John William Mackail Page 246 ISBN 1-4069-2294-3 2007
  2. Mortal am I, the creature of a day..
  3. Jean Claude Pecker (2001), Understanding the Heavens: Thirty Centuries of Astronomical Ideas from Ancient Thinking to Modern Cosmology, p. 311, Springer, ISBN 3-540-63198-4.


ਮੁੱਖ ਸਰੋਤ[ਸੋਧੋ]