ਮਦਦ:ਜਰਮਨ ਲਈ IPA

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents German language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
Ball[੧] ball
ich, durch hue
dann[੧] done
Fass, Vogel fuss
Gast[੧] guest
hat hut
ja yard
kalt cold
Last last
Mast must
Naht not
lang long
Pakt puck
Pfahl cupfull
Rast[੨] roughly like loch (Scottish English)
No English equivalent
roughly like water (American English)
Hast fast
schal, Stein shall
Tal tall
Zahl cats
Matsch match
was vanish
Bach[੩] loch (Scottish English)
Hase[੧] hose
beamtet[੪]
()
the glottal stop in uh-oh!
Non-native consonants
Dschungel[੧] jungle
Genie[੧] pleasure
Stress
Bahnhofstraße
()
as in battleship ˈbætəlˌʃɪp
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Monophthongs
Dach bra (but shorter)
Bahn bra
Beet face
Bett, hätte bed
wähle[੫] says
viel feel
bist sit
Boot roughly like law (British English)
Post hospitality
Öl roughly like hurt
göttlich roughly like hurt
Hut true
Putz took
Rübe roughly like few
füllt much like the above but shorter
Diphthongs
weit tie
Haut how
Heu, Räuber roughly like boy
Reduced vowels
Ober[੨] fun
halte comma (when pronounced without stress)
Semivowels
Uhr[੨] comma
Studie studio
aktuell actual
Non-native vowels[੬]
Methan (short )
vital city (short )
Moral (short )
Ökonom (short )
kulant (short )
Psychologie (short )

Notes[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. ੧.੦ ੧.੧ ੧.੨ ੧.੩ ੧.੪ ੧.੫ The German lenis consonants are often pronounced without voice as . In Southern German, the voiceless pronunciation prevails.
  2. ੨.੦ ੨.੧ ੨.੨ Pronunciation of in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only , this pronunciation is nowadays found mainly in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria, while in other regions the uvular pronunciation prevails, with the allophones and . In many regions except for Switzerland, the in the syllable coda is vocalized to after long vowels or after all vowels, and is pronounced as
  3. is realized as a uvular fricative after , and often , , and .
  4. In many varieties of German except for Swiss Standard German, all initial vowels are preceded by .
  5. is often replaced by .
  6. [e i o ø u y], the short versions of the long vowels [eː iː oː øː uː yː], are used in unstressed syllables before the accented syllable and occur only in loanwords. In native words, the accent is generally on the first syllable, and there are no syllables before the accent besides prepositional prefixes.

Bibliography[ਸੋਧੋ]

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