↑Russian makes contrasts between palatalized ("soft") and unpalatalized ("hard") consonants. Palatalized consonants, denoted by a superscript j, ‹ › , are pronounced with the body of the tongue raised toward the hard palate, in a manner similar to the articulation of the y sound in yes. , , , are also considered "soft".
↑ ੨.੦੨.੧੨.੨੨.੩੨.੪In consonant clusters, the voicing or devoicing is determined by that of the final obstruent in the sequence ਫਰਮਾ:Harvcol
↑ ੪.੦੪.੧੪.੨੪.੩In some religious words and colloquial derivatives from them, such as "Господи!", "Бог", as well as interjections, ‹г› is more often pronounced and . When loses its voicing, it is also lenited (a form of dissimilation) before plosives in the word roots -мягк-/-мягч-, -легк-/-легч-, -тягч-, and also in the old-fashioned pronunciation of -ногт-, -когт-, кто.
↑The "soft" vowel letters <е> <ю> and <я> represent a plus a vowel when initial or following other vowels or a yer. When such vowels are unstressed, the may be deleted.
↑While many speakers pronounce words with ‹щ› as and others as , none contrast the two pronunciations. This generally includes words spelled with other letters, though speakers with the pronunciation may still pronounce words like считывать with because of the morpheme boundary between ‹с› and ‹ч›.
↑Intervocalic <г> can represent in certain words and affixes