ਮਦਦ:ਸਪੇਨੀ ਲਈ IPA

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

In general, standard Castilian Spanish is used in IPA transcriptions. Deviations from this occur in words with ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink and ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink:

  • For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone yeísmo (so that, for example, hoya and holla are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨ll⟩ can be transcribed with [ʝ]
  • For terms that are more relevant to regions with seseo, (so that, for example, caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨z⟩ and with soft ⟨c⟩ (i.e. where ⟨c⟩ occurs before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩) can be transcribed with [s].

Transcriptions that deviate from Castilian Spanish should be marked as "local". See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia best
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva [੧] between baby and bevy
d dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
ð diva; arder; admirar [੧] this
f fase; café face
ɡ gato; lengua; guerra got
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo [੧] between go and loch (Scottish English)
ʝ ayuno; poyo [੧] between beige and you or as in jeep
k caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
l lino; alhaja; principal lean
ʎ llave; pollo [੨] roughly like million (or as in you)
m madre; comer; campo; convertir [੩] mother
n nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum [੩] need
ɲ ñandú; cabaña; enyesar [੩] roughly like canyon
ŋ cinco; venga; conquista [੩] sing
p pozo; topo spouse
r rumbo; carro; honra; subrayo; amor [੪] trilled r
ɾ caro; bravo; amor eterno [੪] ladder (American English)
s saco; casa; deshora; espita; xenón sack
θ cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz [੫] thing (in Peninsular Spanish only;
elsewhere, merged with ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink)
t tamiz; átomo stand
chubasco; acechar choose
x jamón; eje; reloj general; México roughly like ham[੬]
z isla; mismo; deshuesar [੭] prison
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
ʃ chaparral; abacaxi; Shakira; show [੮] shack
tlapalería; cenzontle; Popocatépetl No English equivalent (from Nāhuatl)
ts Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a azahar roughly like father
e vehemente roughly like set[੯]
i dimitir; mío; y see
o boscoso roughly like sore[੧੦]
u cucurucho; dúo food
 
Semivowels[੧੧]
IPA Examples English approximation
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
w cuadro; fuego; Huila[੧੨] arduo wine
 
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] / [sjuˈðað] domain
. mío [ˈmi.o] moai

See also[ਸੋਧੋ]

Notes[ਸੋਧੋ]

Other than in loanwords (e.g. hámster; hachís; hawaiano), the letter ‹h› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as [h] or [x] (halar / jalar; hara).[੧੩]

ਹਵਾਲੇ

  1. ੧.੦ ੧.੧ ੧.੨ ੧.੩ /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are fricatives or approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts ਫਰਮਾ:Harvcol.
  2. In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, /ʎ/ has merged into ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. ੩.੦ ੩.੧ ੩.੨ ੩.੩ The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only /n/ (that may also be produced as [ŋ] or nasalization of the preceding vowel, depending on dialect) occurs.
  4. ੪.੦ ੪.੧ The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  5. In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink has merged into ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. [x] is pronounced [h] in many dialects, in Andalusia, Canary Islands, and most of Latin America; like ham.
  7. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  8. In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  9. The Spanish /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  10. The Spanish /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of saw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  11. In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink and ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink.
  12. Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
  13. "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española. http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltGUIBusDPD?lema=h. 


References[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259 

External links[ਸੋਧੋ]

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