ਮਦਦ:ਸਪੇਨੀ ਲਈ IPA

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

In general, standard Castilian Spanish is used in IPA transcriptions. Deviations from this occur in words with ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink and ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink:

  • For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone yeísmo (so that, for example, hoya and holla are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨ll⟩ can be transcribed with
  • For terms that are more relevant to regions with seseo, (so that, for example, caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with ⟨z⟩ and with soft ⟨c⟩ (i.e. where ⟨c⟩ occurs before ⟨i⟩ or ⟨e⟩) can be transcribed with .

Transcriptions that deviate from Castilian Spanish should be marked as "local". See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia best
bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva [੧] between baby and bevy
dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
diva; arder; admirar [੧] this
fase; café face
gato; lengua; guerra got
trigo; amargo; sigue; signo [੧] between go and loch (Scottish English)
ayuno; poyo [੧] between beige and you or as in jeep
caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
lino; alhaja; principal lean
llave; pollo [੨] roughly like million (or as in you)
madre; comer; campo; convertir [੩] mother
nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum [੩] need
ñandú; cabaña; enyesar [੩] roughly like canyon
cinco; venga; conquista [੩] sing
pozo; topo spouse
rumbo; carro; honra; subrayo; amor [੪] trilled r
caro; bravo; amor eterno [੪] ladder (American English)
saco; casa; deshora; espita; xenón sack
cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz [੫] thing (in Peninsular Spanish only;
elsewhere, merged with ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink)
tamiz; átomo stand
chubasco; acechar choose
jamón; eje; reloj general; México roughly like ham[੬]
isla; mismo; deshuesar [੭] prison
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
chaparral; abacaxi; Shakira; show [੮] shack
tlapalería; cenzontle; Popocatépetl No English equivalent (from Nāhuatl)
Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
azahar roughly like father
vehemente roughly like set[੯]
dimitir; mío; y see
boscoso roughly like sore[੧੦]
cucurucho; dúo food
 
Semivowels[੧੧]
IPA Examples English approximation
aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
cuadro; fuego; Huila[੧੨] arduo wine
 
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
ciudad / domain
mío moai

See also[ਸੋਧੋ]

Notes[ਸੋਧੋ]

Other than in loanwords (e.g. hámster; hachís; hawaiano), the letter ‹h› is always silent in Spanish except in a few dialects that retain it as or (halar / jalar; hara).[੧੩]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. ੧.੦ ੧.੧ ੧.੨ ੧.੩ , , and are fricatives or approximants (; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an or , or—in the case of and —after an , in which contexts they are stops , not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts ਫਰਮਾ:Harvcol.
  2. In metropolitan areas of the Iberian Peninsula and some Central American countries, has merged into ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink; the actual realization depends on dialect. In Rioplatense Spanish, it has become or . See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. ੩.੦ ੩.੧ ੩.੨ ੩.੩ The nasal consonants only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Word-finally, only (that may also be produced as or nasalization of the preceding vowel, depending on dialect) occurs.
  4. ੪.੦ ੪.੧ The rhotic consonants ‹r› and ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with occurring word-initially, after , , and , and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only is found elsewhere.
  5. In Latin America, Canary Islands and some regions in Andalusia ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink has merged into ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. [x] is pronounced in many dialects, in Andalusia, Canary Islands, and most of Latin America; like ham.
  7. Allophone of before voiced consonants.
  8. In many dialects, is replaced by or ; e.g. show .
  9. The Spanish doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of play (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bed; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  10. The Spanish doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of coat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of saw; the Spanish vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
  11. In Spanish, the semivowels and can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs though; e.g. aire, rey, auto, are transcribed with ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink and ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink.
  12. Some speakers may pronounce word initial with an epenthetic ; e.g. Huila .
  13. "Grapheme h". Diccionario panhispánico de dudas. Real Academia Española. http://buscon.rae.es/dpdI/SrvltGUIBusDPD?lema=h. 

References[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259 

External links[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਫਰਮਾ:IPA keys horizontal