ਫਰਮਾ:Citation

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ’ਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ

 

[ਸੋਧੋ] Template-info.svg ਵਰਤੋਂ ਹਦਾਇਤਾਂ

The Citation template is a versatile template for citing books, periodicals, contributions in collective works, patents, and web-sites. Its goal is to be an all-purpose citation template. It also has functionality to aid the use of the Harvard referencing style. The template allows author-date ("Harvard") citations in the main body of text to link to a full citation (generated by this template) in a "References" section at the end of the article via the Template:Harvard citation template. This template creates an HTML anchor, linked by #CITEREF followed by up to 4 author/editor last names and the date, to which the Harvard citation and related templates can link.

The template knows whether you are citing a book, periodical, or a chapter in a compilation, depending on which combination of parameters you use. For use with author-date systems such as the Harvard citation template, use of last and date parameters should be considered compulsory, where possible.

This template produces equivalent output to the "Cite" templates. You can use it as a synonym for {{cite journal}}, {{cite book}}, {{cite paper}}, and the same output as {{cite news}}, {{cite web}}, {{cite encyclopedia}}, and {{cite mailing list}} can be obtained using different parameter names. You may wish to change the format of punctuation marks using the |sep= parameter.

Citing books[ਸੋਧੋ]

Parameters (all are optional)[ਸੋਧੋ]

{{citation
|last=
|first=
|authorlink=
|coauthors=
|firstn=,lastn=
|editor=
|editorn=
|editorn-last
|editorn-first
|editor-link
|editorn-link
|others=
|title=
|url=
|archiveurl=
|archivedate=
|format=
|accessdate=
|edition=
|series=
|volume=
|date=
|origyear=
|year=
|month=
|publisher=
|location=
|language=
|isbn=
|oclc=
|doi=
|doi_brokendate=
|bibcode=
|id=
|page=
|pages=
|nopp=
|chapter=
|chapterurl=
|quote=
|ref=
|laysummary=
|laydate=
|separator= 
|postscript= 
|lastauthoramp=
}}
  • last (or last1): The author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The author's first or given name(s).
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • publication-date (or date): Date of publication.
  • date: Date of authorship, if different from date of publication. If only date is used, it will be treated as the date of publication.
  • dateformat: How to format all dates in the article. Accepts the same parameters as {{date}}; defaults to dmy (day-month-year)
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • title: Title of the book.
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition=2nd.
  • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book.
  • series: The book series of which this book is a part.
  • publication-place (or place): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • place: City in which the work was made, if different from the city of publication. If only place is used, it will be treated as the city of publication.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
  • pages: For use when multiple pages are cited. Adds "pp." before the page numbers. Do not use with page.
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • isbn: Use this parameter if the book has an ISBN.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
    • doi_brokendate: If the DOI is not functioning, specify the date in ISO format.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the book can be found.
  • archiveurl: An url of an archived copy of the source url (for example via archive.org or WebCite). Use with archivedate.
  • archivedate: Date of retrieval by the archiving service. Use with archiveurl.
  • accessdate: Date when the url was accessed. Do not link; use |dateformat= to set format of all dates in the reference.
  • postscript: Set terminal punctuation. Leave blank to remove the trailing full stop. Punctuation specified by this parameter will appear within the cite span, and consequently before any icons added by metadata-using software (e.g. library browser plugins). Hence this parameter should be used instead of manually appending data to the citation.

Examples[ਸੋਧੋ]

One author
{{ Citation
 | last=Turner
 | first=O.
 | title=History of the Pioneer
Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's
Purchase, and Morris' Reserve
 | publisher=William Alling
 | place=Rochester, New York
 | year=1851
 | url = http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851
 | accessdate = 2008-01-28
 }}
Turner, O. (1851), History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase, and Morris' Reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, http://olivercowdery.com/texts/1851Trn1.htm#turn1851, retrieved on ੨੮ ਜਨਵਰੀ ੨੦੦੮ 
Three authors, a volume, and an edition
{{ Citation
 | last1=Lincoln
 | first1=A.
 | last2=Washington
 | first2=G.
 | last3=Adams
 | first3=J.
 | title=All the Presidents' Names
 | publisher=The Pentagon
 | place=Home Base, New York
 | volume=XII
 | edition=2nd
 | year=2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G.; Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Citing journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[ਸੋਧੋ]

Parameters[ਸੋਧੋ]

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | publication-date =
 | date =
 | year =
 | title =
 | periodical =
 | series =
 | publication-place =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | url =
 |archiveurl=
 |archivedate=
 | issn =
 | pmid=
 | pmc=
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | accessdate =
}}
  • last (or last1): The author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The author's first or given name(s).
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4, ..., last9: Additional (up to nine) authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4, ..., first9: Additional (up to nine) authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link, ..., author9-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about additional (up to nine) authors, if applicable.
  • publication-date (or date): Date of publication.
  • date: Date of authorship, if different from date of publication. This is most useful in older newspapers where days or weeks could pass between authorship and publication. If only date is used, it will be treated as the date of publication.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • title: Title of the article in the periodical.
  • periodical (or journal, newspaper, magazine): Name of the periodical.
  • series: Series of which this periodical is a part.
  • publication-place: The city of the periodical's publication. This is not recommended for established and widely-distributed periodicals (Vanity Fair), or periodicals in which the title contains the place of publication (New York Times). If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • place: City from which the article was written. Generally, this is used to denote the dateline city of a newspaper article.
  • publisher: The name of the periodical's publisher. Use of this parameter is not recommended for most periodicals, unless it would help the reader in locating a copy. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
  • volume: The volume number of the journal.
  • issue (or number): The issue number of the journal.
  • pages (optional): The pages in the issue where the article may be found.
  • url: An url of an online location where the article can be found.
  • archiveurl: An url of an archived copy of the source url (for example via archive.org or WebCite). Use with archivedate.
  • archivedate: Date of retrieval by the archiving service. Use with archiveurl.
  • issn: The eight-digit International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) identifying the journal.
  • pmid: The document's PubMed Unique Identifier, such as 15128012
  • pmc: The document's PubMed Central article number for full-text free repository of an article, such as 246835
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • accessdate: Date when the url was accessed. Unlinked ISO 8601 format is preferred.

Examples[ਸੋਧੋ]

Journal article
{{Citation
 | last=Hill
 | first=Marvin S.
 | title=Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=12
 | issue=2
 | year=1976
 | pages=1–8
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
 }}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties", BYU Studies 12 (2): 1–8, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
 | last=Smith
 | first=Joseph III
 | author-link=Joseph Smith III
 | title=Last Testimony of Sister Emma
 | newspaper=The Saints' Herald
 | publication-place=Plano, IL
 | volume=26
 | issue=19
 | date=October 1, 1879
 | year=1879
 | month=October
 | page=289
 | url=http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/
dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179
 }}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald (Plano, IL) 26 (19): 289, http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/IL/sain1872.htm#100179 

Citing edited books, or parts of edited books, including encyclopedias and encyclopedia articles[ਸੋਧੋ]

Parameters[ਸੋਧੋ]

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | year =
 | date =
 | publication-date =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor-link =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | editor2-link =
 | title =
 | edition =
 | series =
 | place =
 | publication-place =
 | publisher =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | url =
}}
  • last (or last1): The first author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The first author's first or given name(s).
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • date: Date of authorship or publication.
  • publication-date: Date of publication (if different than date).
  • contribution (or chapter): Title of the contribution or chapter.
  • contribution-url (or chapter-url): URL of the contribution or chapter.
  • editor-last (or editor1-last): The first editor's surname or last name.
  • editor-first (or editor1-first): The first editor's first or given name(s).
  • editor-link (or editor1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first editor.
  • editor2-last, editor3-last, editor4-last: The second, third, and fourth editor' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • editor2-first, editor3-first, editor4-first: The second, third, and fourth editors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • editor2-link, editor3-link, editor4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth editor, if applicable.
  • title: Title of the book or compilation.
  • edition: Number or name of the edition, if not the first; for example: edition=2nd.
  • series: Series of which this periodical is a part.
  • volume: The volume number of a multi-volume book or compilation.
  • place (or location): The place where the article, encyclopedia entry, or other included item was created. Usually, this is collective work's city of publication; if not, then use the separate publication-place parameter. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • publication-place. The place where the collective work was published (if different from place or location).
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press.
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • isbn: Use this parameter if the book or compilation has an ISBN.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the book or compilationcan be found.
  • accessdate: Date when the url was accessed. Unlinked ISO 8601 format is preferred. The access date is only shown if "|url=" is used. The "|accessdate=" has no effect if "|contribution-url=" is used.

Examples[ਸੋਧੋ]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
 | last=Bidamon
 | first=Emma Smith
 | author-link=Emma Hale Smith
 | chapter=Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
 | date=March 27, 1876
 | year=1876
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
 }}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, 1996, ISBN 1–56085–072–8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
 | editor-last=Vogel
 | editor-first=Dan
 | title=Early Mormon Documents
 | volume=1
 | publisher=Signature Books
 | publication-date=1996
 | isbn=1–56085–072–8
 }}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1–56085–072–8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
  | last = Kramer
  | first = Martin
  | author-link = Martin Kramer
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | publication-date = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
  | contribution = Bernard Lewis
  | editor-last = Boyd
  | editor-first = Kelley
  | title = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
  | volume = 1
  | pages = 719–720
  | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
  | place = London
  | year = 1999
  | contribution-url = http://
www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/
BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Citing contributions, republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[ਸੋਧੋ]

Parameters[ਸੋਧੋ]

{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | year =
 | date =
 | publication-date =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor-link =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | editor2-link =
 | title =
 | periodical =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publication-place =
 | publisher =
 | id =
 | issn =
 | doi =
 | oclc =
 | url =
}}
  • last (or last1): The first author's surname or last name.
  • first (or first1): The first author's first or given name(s).
  • author-link (or author1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first author.
  • last2, last3, last4: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • first2, first3, first4: The second, third, and fourth authors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • author2-link, author3-link, author4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth author, if applicable.
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. (Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation. In some situations, the template may be able to derive a year from the full date.)
  • date: Date of authorship or publication.
  • publication-date: Date of publication (if different than date).
  • contribution (or chapter): Title of the contribution or chapter.
  • contribution-url (or chapter-url): URL of the contribution or chapter.
  • editor-last (or editor1-last): The first editor's surname or last name.
  • editor-first (or editor2-first): The first editor's first or given name(s).
  • editor-link (or editor1-link): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first editor.
  • editor2-last, editor3-last, editor4-last: The second, third, and fourth editor' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • editor2-first, editor3-first, editor4-first: The second, third, and fourth editors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • editor2-link, editor3-link, editor4-link: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth editor, if applicable.
  • title: Title of the book or compilation.
  • periodical (or journal, newspaper, magazine): Name of the periodical.
  • series: Series of which this periodical is a part.
  • volume: The volume number of the journal.
  • issue (or number): The issue number of the journal.
  • pages (optional): The pages in the issue where the article may be found.
  • place (or location): The place where the article, encyclopedia entry, or other included item was created. Usually, this is collective work's city of publication; if not, then use the separate publication-place parameter. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. If the city is not well-known, you may add a county, region, or state. States in the U.S. are denoted by a two-letter code; for example: place=Paris, TX (no period at the end). Where the publisher is a university and the place or location is included in the name of the university, do not use this parameter.
  • publication-place. The place where the collective work was published (if different from place or location).
  • id: Identifier such as ISBN 1–111–22222–9
  • issn: The eight-digit International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) identifying the journal.
  • doi: A digital object identifier such as 10.1016/j.coi.2004.08.001.
  • oclc: Online Computer Library Center ID number, such as 3185581 (superfluous when ISBN is given).
  • url: An url of an online location where the book or compilation can be found.
  • accessdate: Date when the url was accessed. Unlinked ISO 8601 format is preferred.

Examples[ਸੋਧੋ]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
 | last=Knight
 | first=Joseph, Sr.
 | year=1833
 | editor-last=Jessee
 | editor-first=Dean
 | title=Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
 | journal=BYU Studies
 | volume=17
 | issue=1
 | publication-date=1976
 | pages=35
 | url=https://byustudies.byu.edu/
shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
 }}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History", BYU Studies 17 (1): 35, 1976, https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
 | last=Klingensmith
 | first=Philip
 | contribution=Affidavit
 | year=1872
 | date=September 5, 1872
 | place=Lincoln County, Nevada
 | title=Mountain Meadows Massacre
 | editor-last=Toohy
 | editor-first=Dennis J.
 | journal=Corinne Daily Reporter
 | publication-date=September 24, 1872
 | publication-place=Corinne, Utah
 | volume=5
 | issue=252
 | pages=1
 | contribution-url=http://
udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
 }}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), Affidavit, written at Lincoln County, Nevada, in Toohy, Dennis J., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Corinne, Utah) 5 (252): 1, September 24, 1872 

Citing patents[ਸੋਧੋ]

Parameters (all are optional)[ਸੋਧੋ]

{{Citation
 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent.
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.

Examples[ਸੋਧੋ]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{citation
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US}}
ਫਰਮਾ:Citation/make link, ਫਰਮਾ:Citation/authors, "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

Dates[ਸੋਧੋ]

The Manual of Style states that linking of dates purely for the purpose of auto-formatting is now deprecated, so the date and publication-date parameters should use one of the following formats

  • date=February 14, 1990 (comma required)
  • date=14 February 1990
  • date=February 1990
  • date=1990

Ideally the format of all dates in the references of an article should uses a consistent style.

For the accessdate parameter, unlinked ISO 8601 format 2008-07-25 is preferred.

Tools[ਸੋਧੋ]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources#Tools for a list of tools which can help create a reference in the 'citation' format.

COinS[ਸੋਧੋ]

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.