- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation ([β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively) in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g ਫਰਮਾ:Harvcol.
- ↑ In Galician and some rural northern accents of European Portuguese, /v/ has merged with the [b ~ β] set.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are affricated to [dʒ, tʃ] before high front vowels /i, ĩ/.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 In Galician, nasal and lateral consonants only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. In word-final position, only /ŋ/ and /l/ occur.
- ↑ In European Portuguese, syllable-final /l/ is usually velarized [ɫ] much like with 'toll' for many English speakers. For most Brazilians, it has been vocalized to [w] before consonants and at the end of words. In traditional Galician, syllable-final /l/ was also velarized; but nowadays it has been widely replaced by a clear l [l] in most dialects.
- ↑ In some Galician dialects /ʎ/ has merged with /j/. Minor yeísmo-like merger is also present in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, specially the caipira one.
- ↑ In most Brazilian dialects, /ɲ/ is realized as a nasal palatal approximant [j̃]. See Thomas (1974:8) and Perini (2002:?).
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as [x], [h], [χ], [ʁ], etc., in Brazil; as [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], etc., in Portugal; and as [r] in Galicia. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 9.2 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /ʁ/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after ‹l›, ‹n›, and ‹s› and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 The realization of syllable-final ‹r› varies amongst dialects; it is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap [ɾ] in European Portuguese, Galician and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as either an alveolar approximant [ɹ] or retroflex approximant [ɻ] in various other Brazilian dialects (primarily known for its use in caipira dialect, but also paranaense among sulista dialects, mineiro, sertanejo, and to a minor degree, some spekers of paulistano, capixaba and even fluminense) and as a guttural R in all others (e.g. Rio de Janeiro city, the overwhelmingly majority from the Northeast). Additionally, in some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final ‹r› may be weakened to complete elision in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (note word final ‹r› is pronounced —though as a tap [ɾ]— only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]).
- ↑ Allophone of /s/ in Galician.
- ↑ In some Galician dialects /ɡ/ is pharyngealized [ħ] or glottalized [h] in a phonological process known as gheada.
- ↑ In Galician, /x/ may be used in loanwords, foreign names and hispanicized names; like kharxa, Araújo (instead of Araúxo, pron. with [ʃ]) and Fagilde or Fajilde (instead of Faxilde, pron. with [ʃ]).
- ↑ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 The 5 higher vowels /ɐ, e, i, o, u/, when stressed and followed by a nasal consonant, may assimilate the nasality.
- ↑ In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds (e.g. abelha, venho, jeito).
- ↑ 16.0 16.1 In European Portuguese the IPA symbol /ɨ/ denotes a near-close near-back unrounded vowel: [ɯ̟] or [ʊ̜], rather than a close central unrounded vowel.
- ↑ Some of the post-stressed high vowels in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
- ↑ In Portuguese, word final /ɐ̃/ may diphthongize to [ɐ̃w] (note this realization occurs exclusively in verbal forms spelled with final -am: namoram, falam, ruiram).
- ↑ In Portuguese, word final /ẽ/ diphthongizes to [ẽj] (e.g. sem, também, nuvens). In many European Portuguese dialects (especially central and southern varieties) it has become [ɐ̃j]: sem [ˈsɐ̃j]
- ↑ The semivowels /w/ and /j/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs. This includes nasal diphthongs such as [ɐ̃j] and [ɐ̃w], and nasal triphthongs such as [wɐ̃w] and [wõj].
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