↑A trilled allophone [r] occurs word-initially in native vocabulary (Spanish/Italian/Russian R); trill [r] as a separate phoneme occurs word-medially in loanwords of especially Arabic origin as a result of gemination of [ɾ].
↑Velar nasal [ŋ] is an allophone of /n/ before [g], [k], [ɣ], [ɢ], and [x] in native vocabulary.
↑Stress falls on the last stem syllable of most words. For the various exception and other clarifications, see Persian phonology#Stress
↑ 10.010.110.2In the modern Persian script, the "short" vowels /æ/, /e/, /o/ are usually not written as is done in the Arabic alphabet; only the long vowels /ɒː/, /iː/, /uː/ are represented in the text. This, of course, creates certain ambiguities.
↑[e] is also an allophone of /æ/ in word-final position in contemporary Iranian Persian.
↑The Persian /e/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of bate (for most English dialects) and the vowel of bet; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
↑The Persian /o/ doesn't quite line up with any English vowel, though the nearest equivalents are the vowel of boat (for most English dialects) and the vowel of raw; the Persian vowel is usually articulated at a point between the two.
↑/ou/ becomes [o] in colloquial Tehrani dialect but is preserved in other Western dialects and standard Western Persian.