↑ 1.01.11.21.31.4[c]~[k] (Turkish/Azeri) / [k]~[q] (Turkmen), [ɟ]~[ɡ](Turkish) / [ɡ]~[ʁ] (Turkmen), [l]~[ɫ] only contrast in loan words before <â, û> vs. <a, u>; in native words, [c/k, ɟ/ɡ, l] occur before the front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/), while [k/q, ɡ, ɫ] occur before the back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).
↑ 2.02.12.2In Turkish, between unrounded front vowels (/e/, /i/), ğ is similar to English y. Between unrounded back vowels (/a/, /ɯ/), it is silent. Between rounded vowels (/o/, /ø/, /u/, /y/) it is either silent or may have a very light [β] sound. Word-finally or before a consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.,
↑ In Turkmen, [h] occurs before front vowels (/e/, /i/, /ø/, /y/) while [x] occurs before back vowels (/a/, /o/, /u/, /ɯ/).