ਮਦਦ:ਅਰਬੀ ਲਈ IPA
The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents the Modern Standard form of the Arabic language in Wikipedia articles. The charts also have Egyptian Arabic sounds, though not necessarily all other varieties of Arabic. Actual pronunciations differ, depending on the native variety of Arabic of the speaker, as Modern Standard Arabic is not anyone's native language.
See Arabic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Arabic.
The transliteration of consonants has the standard of DIN 31635 written first.
- That phoneme is represented by the Arabic letter ǧīm (ج) and has many standard pronunciations: ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink in Egypt and some regions in Yemen and Oman, as well as, in Morocco and Algeria in some words, especially colloquially; ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink in most of the Levant and most other places across North Africa; ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink in most of the Arabian Peninsula, north Algeria and restricted areas of the Levant. In the Arabian Peninsula it is sometimes softened to ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink. Some regions in Sudan and Yemen have a ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink or ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink.
- In case of loanwords: ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink or ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink are realized as ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink in Egypt and can be transcribed by چ which is used to transcribe ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink in Israel. In case of transcribing Iraqi and gulf Arabic, چ represents: ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink. چ as used for ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink is rare and mostly used only in Iraq (and less likely for other Gulf Arabics), but usually تش is used instead. Elsewhere it is usually realized as ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink+ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink and a buffer vowel might be inserted in between, before or after the consonants. It might be approximated to ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink.
- In Egypt, Sudan and Levant, /θ, ð/ are always approximated to [s, z] in loanwords in their regional dialects.
- Ẓāʾ (ظ) represents [zˤ ~ z], in Egypt, Levant and Sudan, for both of regional dialects and Modern Standard Arabic.
- ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink can also be used in loanwords. If not ج, other letters may represent the phoneme, such as: غ, ك, ق, گ, ਫਰਮਾ:Script/Arabic or ਫਰਮਾ:Script/Arabic.
- In Iraq and Persian Gulf pronunciation, it is epiglottal.
- In Modern Standard Arabic, ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink is only found in Allah, but it's found in other dialects normally. Most speakers of other regions lack the sound even when pronouncing Modern Standard Arabic.
- In many geographic regions, regional dialects substitute ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink with ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink, ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink or ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink, with some exceptions.
- In the northern most of Egypt and in Lebanon, /r/ is in free variation between ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink and ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink.
- The emphatic /rˤ/ exists in North Africa.
- In some geographic regions, it is uvular.
- Broad transcription only corresponds to Modern Standard Arabic.
- The front vowel ਫਰਮਾ:IPAslink corresponds to: ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink in Levant; ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink or ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink in Northwest Africa in stressed syllables in dialects which have stress while in these dialects, the unstressed form is ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink. In west Arabia, it's mainly ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink with an allophone, if there are no emphatic consonants or emphatic consonant clusters, ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink before /n, l/ and after /j, ɡ/.
- The phonemes /a, aː/ are retracted to ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink and [ɑː], respectively, around the emphatic consonants, /tˤ, dˤ, sˤ, ðˤ/, also sometimes /r/. Some standards also include /ʁ, χ/. ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink is the main stressed open vowel in Iraq and Persian Gulf pronunciation.
- ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink is an allophone of unstressed /a/ in Iraq and Persian Gulf pronunciation.
- ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink~ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink is an allophone of short /i/ in some pronunciations. Although in proper pronunciation of loanwords of non-Arabic origin, it can be ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink.
- ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink~ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink is an allophone of short /u/ in some pronunciations. Although in proper pronunciation of loanwords of non-Arabic origin, it can be ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink.
- Mainly in Egypt and Sudan, the final form is always ى, both in handwriting and in print, representing both final-/iː/ and final-/aː/.
- Modern Standard Arabic diphthongs /aj, aw/ are especially monophthongized to [eː, oː] in names of Arabic origin. In Lebanese Arabic, medial /aː/ sometimes has ਫਰਮਾ:IPAblink as an allophone.
- The International Phonetic Alphabet (revised to 2005) Symbols for all languages are shown on this one-page chart.
- Chart of Arabic transliteration systems (non-normative), including DIN 31635, Revision 2.2 (2008-02-25)