ਮਦਦ:ਇਤਾਲਵੀ ਲਈ IPA
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- If the consonants are doubled between vowels, they are geminated. This can also happen between sonorants (genuinely, all consonants can be geminated except for [z]). In IPA, gemination can be represented either by doubling the consonant: fatto [ˈfatto], mezzo [ˈmɛddzo]; or with the length marker ‹ ː ›. Notice as well, syntactic gemination can occur in Italian (e.g. va via [vavˈvi.a]).
- /ʎ/, /ɲ/ and /ʃ/ are always geminated word-internally.
- The nasals always assimilate their place of articulation to that of the following consonant. Thus, the n in /nɡ/, /nk/ is a velar [ŋ], the realization before /v/ or /f/ is a labiodental [ɱ] (though this is transcribed here as [m]), and only [m] is ever found before /p/ or /b/.
- Italian contrasts seven stressed monophthongs. In unstressed syllables, mid vowels occur in complementary distribution; with open-mid vowels [ɛ ɔ] appearing before sonorants (e.g. copertura [kopɛrˈtura]), and close-mid vowels [e o] found elsewhere (e.g. posso [ˈpɔsso]). Open and close vowels [a i u] stay unchanged in unstressed syllables, though utterance-final unstress [i] may become an approximant [j] before vowels in a process known as synalepha (syllable merging), e.g. pari età [ˌparjeˈta].
- In addition to the pure vowels, there are diphthongs ending in [i] and [u]:
- [ai] as in baita ('mountain hut')
- [ei] as in potei ('could 1.sg.')
- [ɛi] as in sei ('six')
- [oi] as in voi ('you pl.')
- [ɔi] as in poi ('later')
- [ui] as in lui ('he')
- [au] as in auto ('car')
- [eu] as in pleurite ('pleuritis')
- [ɛu] as in neutro ('neuter')
- Stressed vowels are long when in a non-final open syllable: fato [ˈfaːto] ~ fatto [ˈfatto].