↑ 1.01.11.21.31.41.5‹γ›, ‹κ›, ‹χ›, ‹γγ›, ‹γκ›, ‹γχ› represent palatal [ʝ c ç ɲɟ ɲç] only before the front vowels[i] and [e]. The velar and palatal series are sometimes analyzed as allophones of a single dorsal series.
↑ 3.03.1[ʎ] and [ɲ] are usually analysed as clusters of /li/ and /ni/ respectively, and are also spelled accordingly in Greek orthography. Palatalized pronunciation presupposes the presence of yet another vowel after the palatalized consonant and its following /i/. If there is no subsequent second vowel, palatalization does not occur.
↑‹σ› represents [z] before [b v m r ɣ] e.g.: Σμήνος[ˈzminos]
↑ 7.07.17.27.18.104.22.168.7γκ, μπ, ντ usually represent [ŋɡ~ɲɟ mb nd] when found in the middle of a Greek word, [ɡ~ɟ b d] when found in any foreign word or in the beginning of the a Greek one. e.g.: αμπέλι[amˈbeli], μπαμπάς [baˈbas]
↑The large number of mergers into Modern Greek /i/ is called Iotacism.
↑Letters normally representing /i/ can also indicate a palatal pronunciation of dorsal consonants when appearing before other vowels: i.e instead of velar [ɣ k x ɡ], palatal [ʝ c ç ɟ] occur (e.g.: γιαγιά[ʝaˈʝa], κιόλας[ˈcolas], χιόνι[ˈçoni], μαγκιά[maˈɟa]. A similar process has a palatal fricative follow other consonants; [ʝ] follows voiced consonants [v b d ð z r] (e.g.: χέρια[ˈcerʝa], βαριέμαι[varˈʝeme]) and [ç] follows voiceless consonants [f p θ t s t͡s] (e.g.: καρφιά[karfˈça], ποιος[pços], ρεβύθια[reˈviθça]). Similarly [ɲ] follows [m] under similar situations (e.g.: μια[mɲa], καλαμιά[kalaˈmɲa]
↑When following a vowel, ‹υ› represents a pronunciation with [f] before ‹θ›, ‹κ›, ‹ξ›, ‹π›, ‹σ›, ‹τ›, ‹φ›, ‹χ›, ‹ψ›, and a pronunciation with [v] elsewhere.