The charts below show the way in which the
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Swedish and Norwegian pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.
Swedish phonology and Norwegian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages. Examples in the table are Swedish unless otherwise noted.
Nearest English equivalent
bort a bout
Kina Swedish: sheep; Norwegian: hue
rd or der
god a go
, Norwegian: sjö ('lake') sjø
Swedish: Scottish English lo ch; Norwegian: shoe
jo jo ('yo-yo')
(Norwegian and Swedish: 'brine', 'burbot')
rl (male first name) twir l
rn tur ner
ti (' ng thing')
pa ppa pool
r A flapped or trilled R.
rsdag mar shal (in some dialects)
pa ('political party')
rti car tel
Nearest English equivalent
mat [ˈmɑːt] "food"
fast [ˈfast]/ [ˈfɑst] "steady, unmoving"
British st ack
hel [ˈheːl] "whole"
Scottish s ave
häl [ˈhɛːl] "heel"
häll/helle [ˈhɛl] "flat rock"
ära [æːra]/ ære [æːre] "honour"
Australian h am
färsk/ fersk [ˈfæʂːk] "fresh"
sil [ˈsiːl] "sieve"
sill/sild [ˈsɪl]/ [ˈsɪl(d)] "herring"
mål [ˈmoːl] "goal"
Scottish/Canadian st ove
moll [ˈmɔl] "minor" (music)
m oll, with round lips
No English equivalent; German long ö
nött [ˈnœt] "worn" / nøtt "nut"
No English equivalent; German short ö
öra [œːra] "ear"
No English equivalent; French s œur
ful [ˈfʉːl] "ugly, cunning, sly"
f uel, Australian f ood, with tight lips
full [ˈfɵl]/ [ˈfʉl] "full"
British b utcher
bot [ˈbuːt] "penance"
bott [ˈbʊt] "lived"
p ut, with tight lips
syl [ˈsyːl] "awl"
No English equivalent; French long u
syll [ˈsʏl] "sleeper" (railroad) in Swedish; fylle "fill" in Norwegian
No English equivalent; German short ü
begå [bəˈgoː] "commit"
Stress and tone
Examples from a rich regional variety
[ˈandɛn] "the duck"
Tone 1 / acute accent: • Single stress with single falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈândɛn] • Low tone [ˈà] in Oslo and falling tone [ˈâ] in western Norway
[ˈanˈdɛn] "the spirit"
Tone 2 / grave accent: • Double stress with double falling tone in Stockholm: [ˈânˈdɛ̂n] • Falling-rising tone [ˈâ] in Oslo and rising-falling tone in western Norway
↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 In many of the dialects that have an
apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce retroflex consonant realizations: [, ɖ] [, ɭ] [, ɳ] [, ʂ] [. In dialects with a ʈ] guttural R, such as Southern Swedish and many Southern and Western Norwegian dialects these are [ʀd], [ʀl], [ʀn], [ʀs], [ʀt].
/ɧ/ is a regionally variable sound, sometimes [xʷ], [ɸˠ], or [ ʂ]
/r/ is regionally variable, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Before
/r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed in Swedish. /ɛː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [; æ] /øː/, and /œ/ are lowered to [œ̞], though the diacritic is not included in the chart above for simplicity.
↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Vowels spelt
u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelt ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.
[ʉː] is a central vowel in Oslo, but a front vowel in Stockholm.
Bibliography [ ਸੋਧੋ ]