ਪੈਲਿਕਾਨ

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ਉੱਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ
ਪੈਲਿਕਾਨ
Temporal range: Late Oligocene-Recent, 28.1–0 Ma
Pelikan Walvis Bay.jpg
A great white pelican in breeding condition flying in Walvis Bay, Namibia.
ਵਿਗਿਆਨਿਕ ਵਰਗੀਕਰਨ
ਜਗਤ: Animalia
ਸੰਘ: Chordata
ਵਰਗ: Aves
ਤਬਕਾ: Pelecaniformes
ਪਰਿਵਾਰ: Pelecanidae
Rafinesque, 1815
ਜਿਣਸ: Pelecanus
Linnaeus, 1758
ਜਾਤੀ
Pelecanus onocrotalus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

8, see text

ਪੈਲਿਕਾਨ, ਇੱਕ ਬਹੁਤ ਵੱਡਾ ਜਲ-ਪੰਛੀ ਹੈ ਜੋ ਮੱਛੀਆਂ ਖਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਇਸ ਪੰਛੀ ਨੂੰ ਹਰ ਰੋਜ਼ ਘੱਟੋ-ਘੱਟ ਦੋ ਕਿਲੋ ਖ਼ੁਰਾਕ ਦੀ ਲੋੜ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਹੈ। ਇਸ ਦੀ ਲੰਬੀ, ਭਾਰੀ ਤੇ ਚਪਟੀ ਚੁੰਝ ਹੇਠ ਇੱਕ ਲਚਕਦਾਰ ਥੈਲੀ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਹੈ ਜਿਸ ਨੂੰ ਇਹ ਮੱਛੀਆਂ ਫੜਨ ਲਈ ਜਾਲ ਵਜੋਂ ਵਰਤਦਾ ਹੈ। ਸ਼ਿਕਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਢੇਰ ਸਾਰੇ ਪਾਣੀ ਨਾਲ ਚੁੰਝ ਵਿੱਚ ਲੈ ਆਉਂਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਫਿਰ ਪਾਣੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਾਹਰ ਕੱਢ ਕੇ ਸ਼ਿਕਾਰ ਨੂੰ ਨਿਗਲ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਇਉਂ ਹੀ ਸਪੂਨ-ਬਿਲ ਨਾਮਕ ਪੰਛੀ ਆਪਣੀ ਚਿਮਚੇ ਵਰਗੀ ਚੁੰਝ ਨਾਲ ਚਿੱਕੜ ਵਾਲੀਆਂ ਥਾਵਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਆਪਣੀ ਖੁਰਾਕ (ਛੋਟੇ ਜੀਵ) ਲੱਭ ਕੇ ਖਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਖੁਰਾਕ ਦੀ ਭਾਲ ਵਿੱਚ ਇਹ ਪੰਛੀ ਅਕਸਰ ਆਪਣੀ ਚੁੰਝ ਨੂੰ ਚਿੱਕੜ ਵਿੱਚ ਗੱਡੀ ਰੱਖਦਾ ਹੋਇਆ ਹੌਲੀ-ਹੌਲੀ ਤੁਰਦਾ ਰਹਿੰਦਾ ਹੈ।[1]

Living species[ਸੋਧੋ]

Living species of Pelecanus
Common and binomial names[2] Image Description Range and status
American white pelican

Pelecanus erythrorhynchos
Gmelin, 1789

American white pelican
Length 1.3–1.8 m (4.3–5.9 ft), wingspan 2.44–2.9 m (8.0–9.5 ft), weight 5–9 kg (10–20 lb).[3] Plumage almost entirely white, except for black primary and secondary remiges only visible in flight. Monotypic. Inland North America, wintering in Mexico.[4] Status: Least Concern.[5]
Brown pelican

Pelecanus occidentalis
Linnaeus, 1766

Brown pelican
Length up to 1.4 m (4.6 ft), wingspan 2–2.3 m (6.6–7.5 ft), weight 3.6–4.5 kg (7.9–9.9 lb).[6] Smallest pelican; distinguished by brown plumage; feeds by plunge-diving.[7] Five subspecies. Coastal distribution ranging from North America and the Caribbean to northern South America and the Galapagos.[4] Status: Least Concern.[8]
Peruvian pelican

Pelecanus thagus
Molina, 1782

Peruvian pelican
Length up to 1.52 m (5.0 ft), wingspan 2.48 m (8.1 ft),[9] average weight 7 kg (15 lb).[10] Dark with a white stripe from the crown down the sides of the neck. Monotypic. Pacific Coast of South America from Ecuador and Peru south through to southern Chile.[4] Status: Near Threatened.[11]
Great white pelican

Pelecanus onocrotalus
Linnaeus, 1758

Great white pelican
Length 1.40–1.75 m (4.6–5.7 ft), wingspan 2.45–2.95 m (8.0–9.7 ft), weight 10–11 kg (22–24 lb).[12][13] Plumage white, with pink facial patch and legs. Monotypic. Patchy distribution from eastern Mediterranean east to Indochina and Malay Peninsula, and south to South Africa.[4] Status: Least Concern.[14]
Australian pelican

Pelecanus conspicillatus
Temminck, 1824

Australian pelican
Length 1.60–1.90 m (5.2–6.2 ft), wingspan 2.5–3.4 m (8.2–11.2 ft), weight 4–8.2 kg (8.8–18.1 lb).[15] Predominantly white with black along primaries and very large, pale pink bill. Monotypic. Australia and New Guinea; vagrant to New Zealand, Solomons, Bismarck Archipelago, Fiji and Wallacea.[4] Status: Least Concern.[16]
Pink-backed pelican

Pelecanus rufescens
Gmelin, 1789

Pink-backed pelican
Length 1.25–1.32 m (4.1–4.3 ft), wingspan 2.65–2.9 m (8.7–9.5 ft),[17] weight 3.9–7 kg (8.6–15.4 lb).[18] Grey and white plumage, occasionally pinkish on the back, with a yellow upper mandible and grey pouch.[17] Monotypic. Africa, Seychelles and southwestern Arabia;[4] extinct in Madagascar.[19] Status: Least Concern.[20]
Dalmatian pelican

Pelecanus crispus
Bruch, 1832

Dalmatian pelican
Length 1.60–1.80 m (5.2–5.9 ft), wingspan 2.70–3.20 m (8.9–10.5 ft), weight 10–12 kg (22–26 lb).[12][13] Largest pelican; differs from great white pelican in having curly nape feathers, grey legs and greyish-white plumage.[17] Monotypic. South-eastern Europe to India and China.[4] Status: Vulnerable.[21]
Spot-billed pelican

Pelecanus philippensis
Gmelin, 1789

Spot-billed pelican
Length 1.27–1.52 m (4.2–5.0 ft), wingspan 2.5 m (8.2 ft), weight c. 5 kg (11 lb).[22] Mainly grey-white all over, with a grey hindneck crest in breeding season, pinkish rump and spotted bill pouch.[22] Monotypic. Southern Asia from southern Pakistan across India east to Indonesia;[4] extinct in the Philippines and possibly eastern China.[22] Status: Near Threatened.[23]

Description[ਸੋਧੋ]

A brown pelican opening mouth and inflating air sac to display tongue and some inner bill anatomy.
American white pelican with knob which develops on bill before the breeding season
An adult brown pelican with a chick in a nest in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, US. This species will nest on the ground when no suitable trees are available.[24]

ਨੋਟਸ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. ਡਾ. ਹਰਚੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ਸਰਹਿੰਦੀ (14 ਫ਼ਰਵਰੀ 2016). "ਸ਼ਿਕਾਰੀ ਬਨਾਮ ਸ਼ਿਕਾਰ ਬਣਨ ਵਾਲੇ ਜੀਵ". ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਟ੍ਰਿਬਿਊਨ. Retrieved 15 ਫ਼ਰਵਰੀ 2016.  Check date values in: |access-date=, |date= (help)
  2. "Zoological Nomenclature Resource: Pelecaniformes (Version 2.003)". www.zoonomen.net. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 21 May 2012. 
  3. Nellis, David W. (2001). Common Coastal Birds of Florida & the Caribbean. Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press. p. 11. ISBN 1-56164-191-X. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Sibley, Charles Gald; Monroe, Burt Leavelle (1990). Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press. pp. 314–15. ISBN 0300049692. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  5. BirdLife International (2011).
  6. "Brown Pelican" (PDF). Endangered Species Program information sheet. US Fish & Wildlife Service. November 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  7. Ridgely, Robert S.; Gwynne, John A. (1992). A Guide to the Birds of Panama: With Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 63. ISBN 0691025126. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  8. BirdLife International (2011).
  9. Chester, Sharon R. (2008). A Wildlife Guide to Chile: Continental Chile, Chilean Antarctica, Easter Island, Juan Fernández Archipelago. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 174–75. ISBN 0691129762. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  10. Austermühle, Stefan (17 October 2010). "Peruvian Pelican". Mundo Azul. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  11. BirdLife International (2011).
  12. 12.0 12.1 Snow, David; Perrins, Christopher M, ed. (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic concise edition (2 volumes). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. pp. 93–98. ISBN 0-19-854099-X. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Mullarney, Killian; Svensson, Lars; Zetterström, Dan; Grant, Peter (1999). Collins Bird Guide. Collins. p. 76. ISBN 0-00-219728-6. 
  14. BirdLife International (2011).
  15. "Australian Pelican". Unique Australian Animals. Retrieved 10 June 2012. 
  16. BirdLife International (2011).
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Beaman, Mark; Madge, Steve (2010). The Handbook of Bird Identification: For Europe and the Western Palearctic. London, United Kingdom: A&C Black. pp. 83–85. ISBN 1408134942. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  18. Elliott (1992), p. 309
  19. Langrand, Olivier (1990). Guide to the Birds of Madagascar. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0300043104. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  20. BirdLife International (2011).
  21. BirdLife International (2011).
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Brazil, Mark (2009). Birds of East Asia. London, United Kingdom: A&C Black. p. 110. ISBN 0713670401. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  23. BirdLife International (2011).
  24. "Brown Pelican breeding and nesting habits". Florida Wildlife Viewing. M. Timothy O’Keefe. Retrieved 5 August 2012. 

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