ਮਦਦ:ਕਾਤਾਲਾਨ ਲਈ IPA

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
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IPA ਵਿਅੰਜਨ
ਕਾਤਾਲੋਨੀਆ ਵਾਲੈਂਸੀਆਈ ਭਾਈਚਾਰਾ ਮਿਸਾਲਾਂ ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ੀ ਤੁਲ
b bèstia; capgròs [1] best
β rebost; arbre [2] between baby and bevy
d dau; atmosfera [1] door
ð cada; pedra [2] other
f fins; salv face
ɡ got; guix; anècdota [1] get
ɣ aigua; agradar; figuera [2] between ago and ahold
k cor; quan; qui; llarg; March scan
ɫ l laca; vela; cel·la[3] vetlla/vetla [4] wool or luck
ɫ alça; cel [4] wool
ʎ llac; cella[3] vetlla/vetla; Elx [4] million
m mà; em; canvi; Bonmatí [4] mode
n nou; on; dansa [4] need
ɲ nyap; any; punxa; menjar [4] onion
ŋ sang; cinc; tanqueu; signar [4] ring
p parlar; tub span
r r ruc; roure; ferro; enrere [5] trilled r
ɾ horta; per [5] ladder in American English
ɾ truc; roure; enrere; fer-ho [5]
s set; tassa; ascens; cel; caça sack
ts s tsar cats or sack
ts potser; tots; fluids cats
ʃ ʃ Xixona; caixa; peix[6] Flix [7] sheep
xec; clenxa; ponx [7] sheep or cheap
fletxa; despatx; txec; raig; mig [7] cheap
t tothom; fred stand
v viu; blava; afgà; watt [1][8] veal
z zel; onze; casa; feliçment [1] zebra
dz z realitzar [1] pads or zebra
dz dotze; tots alhora [1] pads
ʒ ʒ caixmir; peix espasa [1][7] vision
joc; gespa; sorgir [7] vision or jeep
mitjà; viatge; adjunt; migdia [1][7] jeep
IPA Marginal consonants
θ theta thing
h ehem [9] ham
x kharja loch
IPA ਸਵਰ[10]
ਕਾਤਾਲੋਨੀਆ ਵਾਲੈਂਸੀਆਈ ਭਾਈਚਾਰਾ ਮਿਸਾਲਾਂ ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ੀ ਅੰਦਾਜ਼ਾ
a sac; ànecs bra
ɛ ɛ mel; pèl; presència red
e sec; cafè/café; València red or pay
e séc; anells pay
ə a dona; terra; entenc; espurna alpha or grandma
e dones; terres; amb alpha or Monday
i creixement; naixement alpha or happy
i sis; ties; veí; raïm see
ɔ ɔ soc; mòlt; això raw
o contra; colze; però raw or code
o sóc; molt code
u o oratge; carro; baixos; posar-ho igloo or limo
u cobert; Josep; ho posa igloo
suc; dues; ús; reüll food
IPA Marginal vowels
y but (N.) roughly like cute
œ *fulles (N.) [11] roughly like bird
 
IPA Semivowels[12]
ਕਾਤਾਲੋਨੀਆ ਵਾਲੈਂਸੀਆਈ ਭਾਈਚਾਰਾ ਮਿਸਾਲਾਂ ਅੰਗਰੇਜ਼ੀ ਤੁਲ
j iogurt; Alaior; llei; posa-hi you or boy
w quatre; Güell; sou; posa-ho; web wait or cow
 
IPA ਬਹੁ-ਵਿਭਾਜਕ
ਕਾਤਾਲੋਨੀਆ ਵਾਲੈਂਸੀਆਈ ਭਾਈਚਾਰਾ ਮਿਸਾਲਾਂ ਵੇਰਵਾ
ˈ Miquel [miˈkɛɫ] (E / V) primary stress
. Maria [məˈɾi.ə] (E) / [maˈɾi.a] (V) syllable break
ː Imma [ˈimːə] (E) / [ˈimːa] (V) gemination

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Voiced obstruents /b d ɡ v z dz ʒ dʒ/ are devoiced [p t k f s ts ʃ ] at the end of an utterance.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Voiced stops /b d ɡ/ become lenited [β ð ɣ] (that is, fricatives or approximants of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced (or devoiced) stops, similar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a lateral consonant, and /b/ after /f/.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Catalan orthography distinguishes between ‹ll› (representing /ʎ/) and ‹l·l› (representing a geminated /lː/). In regular speech gemination of ‹l·l› is ignored altogether.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 The sonorants /l/, phonetically [ɫ], and /n/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation (e.g. [m] occurs before a labial consonant, [ɲ] and [ʎ] before a palatal consonant, and [ŋ] before a velar consonant). Between a vowel and a pause, only [ɫ] and [n] are found.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r› with, [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, in compounds and at the end of an utterance; [ɾ] is found elsewhere. Syllable-final /r/ is a tap [ɾ] in Valencia and Majorca. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, word final /r/ is generally dropped (e.g. parlar [pərˈɫa], fer [ˈfe], but per [pər]). In most cases, word final ‹r› is pronounced when the following word begins with a vowel (e.g. fer-hi [ˈfeɾi]).
  6. In Western dialects, including Standard Valencian, the pronunciation of the digraph ‹ix› /ʃ/ is [jʃ] (e.g. caixa [ˈkajʃa], Central Catalan [ˈkaʃə]).
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 While /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ are often described simply as "postalveolar" by many sources, phonetic work done by Daniel Recasens shows the postalveolar sibilants to be alveolo-palatal ([ɕ], [ʑ], [] and [], respectively). Nevertheless, since ‹ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ› are overwhelmingly used in the linguistic literature on Catalan and Valencian, those characters are also used at Wikipedia.
  8. Several dialects have /v/ as a separate phoneme, in particular, Balearic, Alguerese, standard Valencian, and certain parts of Tarragona; e.g. viu [ˈviw]. Betacism (that is, merging of /b/ and /v/) is general in the rest of Catalan areas (e.g. viu [ˈbiw]).
  9. Other than in loanwords and interjections, the letter ‹h› is always silent.
  10. All Catalan dialects contrast seven stressed vowels /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/ (except for Balearic dialects that contrast eight stressed vowels—i.e. /a ɛ e i ɔ o u/, plus /ə/: sec /ˈsək/). In unstressed position, the seven-way vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
    • Eastern Catalan (Alguerese, Balearic, Central and Northern): /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ reduce to [ə] (though in Alguerese /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ merge to [a]) while /o/ and /ɔ/ reduce to [u] (however, in most of Majorcan /ɔ/ and /o/ merge to [o]).
    • Western Catalan (North-Western and Valencian): /ɛ/ reduces to [e] and /ɔ/ reduces to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed ‹e› and ‹o› may reduce to [a] and [u] respectively.
  11. In Northern Catalan /u/ becomes [œ] in some instances in contact with palatal consonants (e.g. fulles [ˈfœjəs], standard [ˈfuʎəs]). In other cases it may appear in French interferences, such as sœur or jeunesse, instead of Catalan germana and joventut.
  12. The semivowels /w/ and /j/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs.

References[ਸੋਧੋ]

Catalan

  • Burguet Ardiaca, Francesc (1980). Introducció a la fonologia, fonètica i ortografia del català. Mataró (Barcelona): Robrenyo. ISBN 84-7466-025-4.  ਫਰਮਾ:Ca
  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56 
  • Recasens i Vives, Daniel (1991). Fonètica descriptiva del català : assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i consonantisme del català al segle XX. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. ISBN 8472831728.  ਫਰਮਾ:Ca
  • Romeu i Juvé, Xavier (1983). Manual de fonologia catalana. Barcelona: Barcanova. ISBN 847533119X.  ਫਰਮਾ:Ca
  • Veny, Joan (1978). Els Parlars. Barcelona: Dopesa. ISBN 8472353885.  ਫਰਮਾ:Ca
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005). The Phonology Of Catalan. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199258147.  (en)

Valencian

  • "L'estàndard oral valencià". Valencia: Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL).  Text "Pronunciació valenciana]

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