-ਸਤਾਨ

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਇਸ ਉੱਤੇ ਜਾਓ: ਨੇਵੀਗੇਸ਼ਨ, ਖੋਜ
Map of countries with the suffix -stan

ਪਿਛੇਤਰ -ਸਤਾਨ (Persian:ـستان‎‎ -stān) ਸਥਾਨ ਜਾਂ ਦੇਸ਼ ਲਈ ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀ ਮੂਲ ਦਾ [1][2] ਸ਼ਬਦ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਖਾਸ ਕਰਕੇ ਮੱਧ ਅਤੇ ਦੱਖਣੀ ਏਸ਼ੀਆ ਵਿਚ, ਕਾਕੇਸ਼ਸ ਅਤੇ ਰੂਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਵੀ ਬਹੁਤ ਸਾਰੇ ਖੇਤਰਾਂ ਦੇ ਨਾਮ ਮਗਰ ਲੱਗਿਆ ਹੈ; ਜਿੱਥੇ ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀ ਸਭਿਆਚਾਰ ਦੇ ਮਹੱਤਵਪੂਰਨ ਮਾਤਰਾ ਵਿੱਚ ਅਪਣਾਇਆ ਗਿਆ ਸੀ। ਪਿਛੇਤਰ ਹੋਰ ਵੀ ਵਧੇਰੇ ਵਿਆਪਕ ਅਰਥਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਵਰਤਿਆ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ ਜਿਵੇਂ ਫ਼ਾਰਸੀ ਅਤੇ ਉਰਦੂ ਵਿੱਚ, ਰੇਗਸਤਾਨ (ریگستان) , ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ , ਹਿੰਦੁਸਤਾਨ, ਗੁਲਸਤਾਨ(گلستان), ਆਦਿ।

ਨਿਰੁਕਤੀ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਇਹ ਪਿਛੇਤਰ, ਜੋ ਮੂਲ ਰੂਪ ਵਿੱਚ ਇੱਕ ਸੁਤੰਤਰ ਨਾਂਵ ਹੈ, ਪਰ ਨਾਂਵਮੂਲਕ ਸੰਯੁਕਤ ਸ਼ਬਦਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਪਿਛਲੇ ਹਿੱਸੇ ਦੇ ਤੌਰ ਅਕਸਰ ਆਉਣ ਦੇ ਗੁਣ ਕਰਕੇ ਇੱਕ ਪਿਛੇਤਰ ਬਣ ਗਿਆ, ਭਾਰਤ-ਈਰਾਨੀ ਅਤੇ ਅੰਤ ਵਿਚ ਭਾਰਤ-ਯੂਰਪੀ ਮੂਲ ਦਾ ਹੈ: ਇਹ Sanskrit sthā́na (Devanagari: स्थान [st̪ʰaːna]) ਨਾਲ ਸਗਵਾਂ ਹੈ।

The Proto-Indo-European root from which this noun is derived is *steh₂- (older reconstruction *stā-) "to stand" (or "to stand up, to step (somewhere), to position (oneself)"), which is also the source of English to stand, Latin stāre, and Ancient Greek histamai (ἵσταμαι), all meaning "to stand" and ਰੂਸੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ стан (stan, meaning "settlement" or "semi-permanent camp"). In ਪੋਲਿਸ਼ ਅਤੇ ਯੂਕਰੇਨੀ, stan means "state" or "condition", while in Serbo-Croatian it translates as "apartment" (a Slovenian word "stanovanje" means apartment or other closed space of living is an obvious derivative of stan) in its modern usage, while its original meaning was "habitat". In Czech and Slovak, it means "tent" or, in military terms, "headquarters". Also in Germanic languages, the root can be found in Stand ("place, location"), and in Stadt (German), stad/sted (Dutch/Scandinavian), stêd (West Frisian) and stead (English), all meaning either "place" or "city". The suffix -stan is analogous to the suffix -land, present in many country and location names.

ਦੇਸ਼[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਦੇਸ਼ ਰਾਜਧਾਨੀ (Pop.) ਖੇਤਰਫਲ ਕਿਮੀ² Population Den. /ਕਿਮੀ²
ਅਫ਼ਗ਼ਾਨਿਸਤਾਨ ਕਾਬੁਲ (3,476,000) 652,230 31,108,077 43.5
Kazakhstan ਅਸਤਾਨਾ (780,880) 2,724,900 17,053,000 6.3
ਕਿਰਗਿਜ਼ਸਤਾਨ ਬਿਸ਼ਕੇਕ (874,400) 199,900 5,551,900 27.8
ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਇਸਲਾਮਾਬਾਦ (805,235) 796,095 182,490,721 226.6
ਤਾਜਿਕਸਤਾਨ ਦੁਸ਼ਾਂਬੇ (679,400) 143,100 8,000,000 55.9
Turkmenistan Ashgabat (1,031,992) 488,100 5,125,693 10.5
ਉਜ਼ਬੇਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਤਾਸ਼ਕੰਤ (2,309,600) 447,400 30,183,400 67.5

ਦੇਸੀ ਨਾਮ[ਸੋਧੋ]

Sub-national units[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਇਰਾਨ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਕੁਝ ਇਰਾਨ ਦੇ ਸੂਬੇ:

ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਰੂਸ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਰੂਸ ਦੇ ਕੁਝ ਸੂਬੇ:

ਹੋਰ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਸ਼ਹਿਰ ਅਤੇ ਦੇਸ਼[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਅਫਗਾਨਿਸਤਾਨ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Arghistan
  • Ajristan
  • Gulistan
  • Kohistan (several)
  • Malestan
  • Raghistan
  • Shahristan

ਇਰਾਨ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Ardestan
  • Chamestan
  • Dashtestan
  • Khalajastan
  • Larestan
  • Mehrestan
  • Parchestan (several)
  • Sarvestan
  • Shahrestan (Shahrestan). It is also a common noun meaning "county" in Persian, used for the counties of Iran.
  • Takestan
  • Tangestan

ਹੋਰ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Buston, Tajikistan
  • Gulistan, Uzbekistan
  • Kohistan, Pakistan
  • Kuhistoni Mastchoh, Tajikistan
  • North Waziristan, Pakistan
  • Shahriston, Tajikistan
  • South Waziristan, Pakistan
  • Turkistan, Kazakhstan

ਖੇਤਰ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Arabistan – ਅਰਬੀ ਪਰਾਇਦੀਪ ਦਾ ਨਾਮ ਅਤੇ ਹੋਰ ਅਰਥ
  • Arbayistan – ਸਾਸਾਨੀ ਸਲਤਨਤ Persian satrapy in Late Antiquity
  • Asorestan – the province of Babylonia under the Sassanid Empire
  • Azadistan – a short-lived state in the Iranian province of ਅਜ਼ਰਬਾਈਜਾਨ under Mohammad Khiabani
  • Balawaristan – a revived historical name of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan
  • ਬਲੋਚਿਸਤਾਨ/ਬਲੋਚਿਸਤਾਨ – ਇਰਾਨ, ਅਫ਼ਗ਼ਾਨਿਸਤਾਨ ਅਤੇ ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਵਿਚ ਇੱਕ ਖੇਤਰ
  • Baloristan – ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਦੇ ਉੱਤਰੀ ਇਲਾਕੇ ਵਿਚ ਇੱਕ ਖੇਤਰ
  • ਬਾਲਤਿਸਤਾਨਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਵਿਚ ਇੱਕ ਉੱਤਰੀ ਖੇਤਰ
  • Bantustan – an ਨਸਲੀ ਵਿਤਕਰਾ-era South African black 'homeland' (the term coined by analogy)
  • Cholistan Desert – ਪੰਜਾਬ, ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ ਇੱਕ ਮਾਰੂਥਲੀ ਖੇਤਰ
  • Dardistan – a region in northern ਪਾਕਿਸਤਾਨ of Dardu speakers
  • East Pakistan – the historic name for pre-independence Bangladesh
  • East Turkestan or Uyghurstan – a region dominated by the Turkic-speaking Uyghur people, located in northwest China
  • Frangistan – a historical term used (by Muslims and Persians in particular) to refer to Western or Christian Europe
  • Hazaristan – the Hazarajat, homeland of the Hazara people in central Afghanistan
  • Hindustan – land of the Indus River.
  • Kabulistan – a historical name of the territory centered around present-day Kabul Province of Afghanistan
  • Kafiristan (land of the infidels) – historic region in Afghanistan until 1896, now known as Nuristan. A similarly-named region exists in north Pakistan.
  • Kohistan – several regions of this name exist
  • KurdistanKurdish region
  • Lazistan – Persian name of Lazica, an ancient Georgian monarchy in western Georgia.
  • Lezgistan – ethnolinguistic region in southern Dagestan and northern Azerbaijan
  • Moghulistan (Mughalistan) – a historical area in Central Asia that included parts of modern-day Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Xinjiang
  • North Waziristan – northern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan
  • Pashtunistan – the area of Afghanistan and North-Western Pakistan historically inhabited by the Pashtun tribes
  • Quhistan – a region of medieval Persia, essentially the southern part of Greater Khorasan
  • Registan – historic site in Samarkand, meaning "place of sand"
  • Russian Turkestan – Turkestan in the Russian Empire, later Turkestan Autonomous SSR
  • Sakastan or Sistan – region of Afghanistan and Pakistan where Scythians or Sakas resided in the 2nd century BCE
  • Saraikistan – a proposed region in southern Punjab province of Pakistan
  • South Waziristan – southern part of Waziristan region in Pakistan
  • Tabaristan – a historical region along the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea
  • Talyshistan – ethnolinguistic region in the SE Caucasus and NW Iran
  • Tokharistan, Tocharistan or Tukharistan, also known as Balkh or Bactria – the ancient name of a historical region in Central Asia, located between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus)
  • Turkestan or Turkistan – ethnolinguistic region of Turkic peoples and languages, encompassing Central Asia, northwest China, parts of the Caucasus and Asia Minor
  • Uyghurstan, China, same as East Turkestan
  • Waziristan – a region of northwest Pakistan
  • Zabulistan – a historical region in the border area of today's Iran and Afghanistan, around the city Zabol

ਪ੍ਰਸਤਾਵਿਤ ਨਾਮ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Khalistan or Sikhistan – a proposed country created from areas within India with a Sikh majority.
  • Maronistan – a proposed name for Maronite state in Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War.

ਗਲਪੀ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Adjikistan – a fictional central Asian country in the videogame SOCOM U.S. Navy SEALs: Combined Assault.
  • Aldastan – a fictional central Asian country consisting of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, from Command & Conquer: Generals.
  • Avgatiganistan – a pun of 'Afghanistan', it means 'Fried eggs' ('Avga tiganista') in Greek. Fictional country by author Eugene Trivizas.
  • Azadistan – a fictional kingdom from the anime Mobile Suit Gundam 00, It means "free land".
  • Azmanastan (or Uzmenistan) – a fictional country and region in the film The Expendables 3.
  • Bazrakhistan – a fictional former Soviet republic in the movie Act of War (1998) starring Jack Scalia.
  • Belgistan – fictional Middle Eastern country in the anime Gasaraki.
  • Berzerkistan – a fictional republic run by genocidal terrorist godhead and President for Life Trff Bmzklfrpz, in the comic strip Doonesbury.
  • Derkaderkastan – fictional Middle Eastern country in Team America: World Police.
  • Franistan – fictional country referred to in the television show I Love Lucy.
  • Helmajistan – fictional area from the anime Full Metal Panic!.
  • Howduyustan ("how do you stand?") – fictional country from Uncle Scrooge comic book stories.
  • Iranistan – an oriental region of Hyborea (Conan the Barbarian stories).
  • Istan – a fictional island state in the online role-playing game, Guild Wars Nightfall.
  • Kamistan (Islamic Republic of) – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the television series 24.
  • Kazinistan – an ideal state imagined by John Rawls in The Law of Peoples, in which there is a system of law, legal representation for all groups, and a respect for basic human rights, but not full democracy.
  • Kehjistan – the state of the eastern jungles in the game Diablo II.
  • Kerakhistan – a fictional Middle Eastern country featured in the tabletop miniature wargame Battlefield Evolution.
  • Kreplachistan – fictional country in the movie Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me.
  • Langbortistan - fictional country in the Danish Donald Duck cartoons
  • Obristan - a fictional country in Papers, Please.
  • Paristan or Pari-estan – a fairyland in the folklore of Middle East, South Asia and Central Asia.
  • Pokolistan – a fictional country in DC Comics.
  • Serdaristan – a fictional country in Battlefield: Bad Company.
  • Takistan – a fictional country in ARMA 2: Operation Arrowhead.
  • Tazbekistan – a fictional central Asian nation in the BBC television series Ambassadors.
  • Trashcanistan – a fictional country mentioned by the hosts of "MXC".
  • Turaqistan – fictional country in the movie War, Inc..
  • Tyrgyzstan – fictional country in the BBC television drama The State Within.
  • Zekistan – a fictional central Asian nation in the video game Full Spectrum Warrior.

ਹੋਰ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • Absurdistan – sometimes used to satirically describe a country where everything goes wrong
  • Bimaristan – a kind of hospital in medieval Persia and the medieval Islamic world
  • Bradistan – a moniker for Bradford, England, owing to its large population of Pakistani worker migrants
  • Dalitstan.org – a Dalit advocacy website active until mid-2006,[3] one of 18 websites that were blocked by the Indian government to check for hate messages following the 11 July 2006 Mumbai train bombings.[4]
  • Dondestan – an album by Robert Wyatt. Sounds like ¿Dónde están? (Where are they?) in Spanish.
  • Filmistan – a film-production company
  • Gazimestan – name of a monument commemorating the historical Battle of Kosovo
  • Hamastan – a concept of a Palestinian Islamic government with Sharia as law
  • Iranistan – a pseudo-orientalist mansion built for P. T. Barnum in 1848 in Connecticut
  • Islamistan – means 'Land of Islam', used in various contexts
  • Jewistan – an anti-Semitic moniker proposed by Professor Francis Boyle as a replacement name for the state of Israel.[5][6][7][8]
  • Londonistan – French counter-terrorism agents gave the British/English capital of London this sobriquet. Sometimes used derogatorily to refer to the large immigrant population in the city of London.
  • Muristan – a complex of streets and shops in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem
  • New Yorkistan – the title of the cover art for the December 10, 2001 edition of The New Yorker magazine
    • The New Yorkistan map itself included various districts ending in -stan, e.g., Bronxistan, Cold Turkeystan, Fuhgeddabouditstan, Gaymenistan, Taxistan, Youdontunderstandistan, etc.
  • Paganistan – the pagan/neo-pagan community of Minneapolis-Saint Paul in Minnesota[9]
  • Registan – a UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Samarkand, Uzbekistan
  • Sarvestan – a Sassanid-era palace in the Iranian province of Sarvestan
  • Shabestan – an underground space, usually found in traditional architecture of mosques, houses, and schools in ancient Persia
  • Shahrestan (several meanings)
  • Skateistan – a skateboarding/educational organization based in Kabul, Afghanistan

ਇਹ ਵੀ ਵੇਖੋ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  • -abad – another Persian placename suffix
  • Greater Iran

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

  1. Johnson, Bridget.
  2. Harper, Douglas. "-stan".
  3. Dibyesh Anand (15 October 2011).
  4. "Govt blocks 18 sites to check hate messages".
  5. Jewistan: Finally Recognizing Israel as the Jewish State by Francis A. Boyle, Dissident Voice, October 21st, 2010.
  6. Connections @ Illinois - Jewistan: Finally Recognizing Israel as a Jewish State.
  7. Abbas Accepts Occupation Harshness By Stephen Lendman, People's Voice, February 7th, 2014.
  8. Anti-Semitic Website Attacks Fiveish: “Sick Jew Children Dance with Dollar Bill Man to Bring Joy”, Matzav.com, Wednesday July 9, 2014.
  9. Pizza, Murphy (2009).