ਖੂਨ ਕਿਸਮ

ਵਿਕੀਪੀਡੀਆ, ਇੱਕ ਅਜ਼ਾਦ ਗਿਆਨਕੋਸ਼ ਤੋਂ
ਲਹੂ ਕਿਸਮ (ਜਾਂ ਲਹੂ ਸਮੂਹ) ਕੁਝ ਹੱਦ ਤੱਕ ਲਾਲ ਲਹੂ ਕੋਸ਼ਾਣੂਆਂ ਉੱਤੇ ਲੱਗੇ ਏ.ਬੀ.ਓ. ਲਹੂ ਸਮੂਹ ਦੇ ਐਂਟੀਜਨ ਮੁਕੱਰਰ ਕਰਦੇ ਹਨ।

ਖੂਨ(ਲਹੂ) ਦੀ ਕਿਸਮ (ਜਿਹਨੂੰ ਖੂਨ(ਲਹੂ) ਸਮੂਹ ਵੀ ਆਖਦੇ ਹਨ) ਖੂਨ ਦਾ ਇੱਕ ਵਰਗੀਕਰਨ ਹੈ ਜੋ ਲਾਲ ਲਹੂ ਕੋਸ਼ਾਣੂਆਂ (ਆਰ.ਬੀ.ਸੀ.) ਦੀ ਸਤ੍ਹਾ ਉੱਤੇ ਲੱਗੇ ਵਿਰਸੇ 'ਚ ਮਿਲੇ ਐਂਟੀਜਨੀ ਪਦਾਰਥਾਂ ਦੇ ਹੋਣ ਜਾਂ ਨਾ ਹੋਣ 'ਤੇ ਅਧਾਰਤ ਹੈ। ਇਹ ਐਂਟੀਜਨ ਲਹੂ ਸਮੂਹ ਪ੍ਰਨਾਲੀ ਮੁਤਾਬਕ ਪ੍ਰੋਟੀਨ, ਕਾਰਬੋਹਾਈਡਰੇਟ, ਗਲਾਈਕੋਪ੍ਰੋਟੀਨ ਜਾਂ ਗਲਾਈਕੋਲਿਪਿਡ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੇ ਹਨ। ਇਹਨਾਂ ਵਿੱਚੋਂ ਕੁਝ ਐਂਟੀਜਨ ਕਈ ਹੋਰ ਟਿਸ਼ੂਆਂ ਦੇ ਹੋਰ ਕਿਸਮਾਂ ਦੇ ਕੋਸ਼ਾਣੂਆਂ ਦੀ ਸਤ੍ਹਾ 'ਤੇ ਵੀ ਮਿਲਦੇ ਹਨ। ਇਹ ਲਾਲ ਲਹੂ ਕੋਸ਼ਾਣੂਆਂ ਦੀ ਸਤ੍ਹਾ 'ਤੇ ਲੱਗੇ ਕਈ ਐਂਟੀਜਨ ਇੱਕੋ ਹੀ ਅਲੀਲ (ਜਾਂ ਭੂਤ ਨੇੜਲੇ ਸਬੰਧਾਂ ਵਾਲ਼ੇ ਜੀਨ) ਤੋਂ ਉਪਜਦੇ ਹਨ।[1] ਲਹੂ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਿਸਮਾਂ ਵਿਰਾਸਤ 'ਚ ਹੀ ਮਿਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਮਾਂ ਤੇ ਪਿਓ, ਦੋਹਾਂ ਦੇ ਯੋਗਦਾਨ ਨੂੰ ਦਰਸਾਉਂਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ। ਹੁਣ ਦੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਅੰਤਰਰਾਸ਼ਟਰੀ ਲਹੂ-ਬਦਲੀ ਸਮਾਜ (ਆਈ.ਐੱਸ.ਬੀ.ਟੀ.) ਵੱਲੋਂ ਕੁੱਲ ਮਿਲਾ ਕੇ ੩੨ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਰ ਦੇ ਮਨੁੱਖੀ ਲਹੂ ਸਮੂਹ ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਮਾਨਤਾ ਦੇ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਗਈ ਹੈ।[2] ਦੋ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਪ੍ਰਮੁੱਖ ਅਤੇ ਮਹੱਤਵਪੂਰਨ ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧ ਏ.ਬੀ.ਓ. ਅਤੇ ਆਰ.ਐੱਚ.ਡੀ. ਐਂਟੀਜਨ ਹਨ; ਇਹ ਦੋਹੇਂ ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧ ਕਿਸੇ ਦੇ ਲਹੂ ਦੀ ਕਿਸਮ (ਏ, ਬੀ, ਏਬੀ ਅਤੇ ਓ; + ਅਤੇ − ਆਰ.ਐੱਚ.ਡੀ. ਦੀ ਹਾਲਤ ਦੱਸਦੇ ਹਨ) ਦੱਸਦੇ ਹਨ।

ਕਈ ਗਰਭਵਤੀ ਔਰਤਾਂ ਦੀ ਕੁੱਖ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਪਣੇ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਖ ਲਹੂ ਕਿਸਮ ਵਾਲ਼ਾ ਭਰੂਣ ਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਮਾਂ ਦਾ ਸਰੀਰ ਭਰੂਣ ਦੇ ਲਾਲ ਲਹੂ ਕੋਸ਼ਾਣੂਆਂ ਦੇ ਵਿਰੁੱਧ ਐਂਟੀਬਾਡੀਆਂ ਤਿਆਰ ਕਰਨ ਲੱਗ ਪੈਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਕਈ ਵਾਰ ਇਹ ਐਂਟੀਬਾਡੀਆਂ ਆਈ.ਜੀ.ਜੀ., ਇੱਕ ਛੋਟਾ ਇਮੂਨੋਗਲੋਬੂਲਿਨ, ਹੁੰਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਜੋ ਜੇਰ ਨੂੰ ਪਾਰ ਕਰ ਲੈਂਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਅਤੇ ਭਰੂਣ ਦੇ ਲਾਲ ਲਹੂ ਕੋਸ਼ਾਣੂਆਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਲਹੂ ਨਿਖੇੜ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਕਰ ਦਿੰਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਜਿਹਨਾਂ ਨਾਲ਼ ਨਵੇਂ ਜੰਮੇ ਬੱਚੇ ਨੂੰ ਐਰਿਥਰੋਬਲਾਸਟੋਸਿਸ ਫ਼ੀਟੈਲਿਸ ਨਾਮਕ ਲਹੂ-ਨਿਖੇੜ ਬਿਮਾਰੀ ਹੋ ਜਾਂਦੀ ਹੈ। ਕਈ ਵਾਰ ਇਹ ਬਿਮਾਰੀ ਭਰੂਣ ਲਈ ਮਾਰੂ ਹੁੰਦੀ ਹੈ; ਇਹਨਾਂ ਕੇਸਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਇਸ ਬਿਮਾਰੀ ਨੂੰ ਹਾਈਡਰਾਪਸ ਫ਼ੀਟੈਲਿਸ ਆਖਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ।[3]

ਖੂਨ ਦੇ ਚਾਰ ਗਰੁੱਪ[ਸੋਧੋ]

ਖੂਨ ਨੂੰ ਚਾਰ ਗਰੁੱਪ ਵਿੱਚ ਵੰਡਿਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ ਜੋ ਹਨ A, B, AB ਅਤੇ O ਹਨ। ਕਾਰਲ ਲੈਂਡਸਟੇਨਰ (14 ਜੂਨ, 1868 - 26 ਜੂਨ, 1943) ਆਸਟਰੀਆ ਦਾ ਜੀਵ ਵਿਗਿਆਨੀ ਹੋਏ ਹਨ,a ਉਹਨਾਂ ਨੇ 1901 ਵਿੱਚ ਖੂਨ ਦੇ ਤਿੰਨ ਮੁੱਖ ਗਰੁੱਪਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਦਸਾਇਆ ਸੀ- A, B, C ਬਾਅਦ ਵਿੱਚ C ਨੂੰ O ਕਿਹਾ ਗਿਆ।[4]

ਖੂਨ ਦੇ ਗਲਤ ਲਾਉਣ ਕਾਰਨ ਪੈਂਦਾ ਹੋਏ ਲੱਛਣ
ਫ਼ੀਨੋਟਾਈਪ Phenotype ਜੀਨੋਟਾਈਪ Genotype
A AA ਜਾਂ AO
B BB ਜਾਂ BO
AB AB
O OO
ਲਾਲ ਲਹੂ ਰਕਤ-ਕੋਸ਼ ਦਾਨ ਚਾਰਟ।ਹਰੇਕ ਗਰੁੱਪ ਇਕੋ ਜਿਹੇ ਨੂੰ ਖੂਨ ਦਾਨ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ ਜਾਂ O ਗਰੁੱਪ ਦਾ ਦਾਨੀ A, B ਅਤੇ AB ਨੂੰ ਦਾਨ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ A ਅਤੇ B ਗਰੁੱਪ ਦਾਨੀ AB ਨੂੰ ਖੂਨ ਦਾਨ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ
ਲਾਲ ਲਹੂ ਰਕਤ-ਕੋਸ਼ ਦਾਨ ਚਾਰਟ
ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰਤਾ ਦਾਨੀ
O− O+ A− A+ B− B+ AB− AB+
O− Green tickY X X X X X X X
O+ Green tickY Green tickY X X X X X X
A− Green tickY X Green tickY X X X X X
A+ Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY X X X X
B− Green tickY X X X Green tickY X X X
B+ Green tickY Green tickY X X Green tickY Green tickY X X
AB− Green tickY X Green tickY X Green tickY X Green tickY X
AB+ Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
ਪਲਾਜਮਾ ਦਾਨ ਦਾ ਚਾਰਟ '
ਹਰੇਕ ਗਰੁੱਪ ਆਪਣੇ ਗਰੁੱਪ ਨੂੰ ਦਾਨ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ AB ਗਰੁੱਪ A, B ਅਤੇ O;ਨੂੰ ਦਾਨ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ A, B ਅਤੇ AB ਸਿਰਫ ਗਰੁੱਪ O ਨੂੰ ਪਲਾਜਮਾ ਦਾਨ ਕਰ ਸਕਦਾ ਹਨ।
Plasma compatibility table[5]
ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰਤਾ ਦਾਨੀ
O A B AB
O Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY Green tickY
A X Green tickY X Green tickY
B X X Green tickY Green tickY
AB X X X Green tickY
ABO ਖੂਨ ਦੇ ਗਰੁੱਪਾਂ ਦਾ ਪ੍ਰਬੰਧ:ਇਸ ਤਸਵੀਰ ਵਿੱਚ ABO ਖੂਨ ਦੇ ਗਰੁੱਪ ਨੂੰ ਦਰਸਾਉਂਦਾ ਕਾਰਬੋਹਾਈਡਰੇਟ ਲੜੀ
ਖੂਨ ਗਰੁੱਪ A ਵਾਲੇ ਦੇਸ਼ਾਂ ਦਾ ਨਕਸ਼ਾ
ਖੂਨ ਗਰੁੱਪ O ਵਾਲੇ ਦੇਸ਼ਾਂ ਦਾ ਨਕਸ਼ਾ
ਖੂਨ ਗਰੁੱਪ B ਵਾਲੇ ਦੇਸ਼ਾਂ ਦਾ ਨਕਸ਼ਾ
ABO and Rh blood type distribution by country & dependency (population averages)
Country/Dependency Population[6] O+ A+ B+ AB+ O− A− B− AB-
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Albania[7] 3,074,579 34.1% 31.2% 14.5% 5.2% 6.0% 5.5% 2.6% 0.9%
 Algeria[8] 43,576,691 40.0% 30.0% 15.0% 4.25% 6.6% 2.3% 1.1% 0.75%
 Argentina[9] 45,479,118 48.9% 31.54% 8.0% 2.45% 4.9% 3.16% 0.8% 0.25%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Armenia[10] 3,021,324 29.0% 46.3% 12.0% 5.6% 2.0% 3.7% 1.0% 0.4%
 Australia[11] 25,466,459 38.0% 32.0% 12.0% 4.0% 7.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Austria[12] 8,859,449 30.0% 37.0% 12.0% 5.0% 6.0% 7.0% 2.0% 0.45%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Azerbaijan 10,205,810 29.8% 30.0% 21.1% 9.0% 3.3% 3.4% 2.4% 1.0%
 Bahrain 1,505,003 48.48% 19.35% 22.61% 3.67% 3.27% 1.33% 1.04% 0.25%
 Bangladesh[13] 164,098,818 29.21% 26.3% 33.12% 9.59% 0.53% 0.48% 0.6% 0.17%
 Belarus 9,441,842 32.3% 30.6% 15.3% 6.8% 5.7% 5.4% 2.7% 1.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Belgium[14] 11,720,716 38.0% 34.0% 8.5% 4.0% 7.0% 6.0% 1.5% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Bhutan[ਹਵਾਲਾ ਲੋੜੀਂਦਾ] 857,423 38.15% 29.27% 23.86% 8.41% 0.06% 0.04% 0.04% 0.01%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Bolivia 11,639,909 51.53% 29.45% 10.11% 1.15% 4.39% 2.73% 0.54% 0.1%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Bosnia and Herzegovina 3,835,586 31.0% 36.0% 12.0% 6.0% 5.0% 7.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 Brazil[15] 211,715,973 36.0% 34.0% 8.0% 2.5% 9.0% 8.0% 2.0% 0.5%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Bulgaria 6,966,899 28.0% 37.4% 12.8% 6.8% 5.0% 6.6% 2.2% 1.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Burkina Faso[16] 21,382,659 39.94% 20.79% 26.34% 5.17% 3.36% 1.75% 2.22% 0.43%
 Cambodia 16,926,984 46.7% 27.2% 18.5% 4.9% 1.3% 0.8% 0.5% 0.1%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Cameroon[17] 27,744,989 46.83% 24.15% 21.06% 4.29% 1.79% 0.92% 0.8% 0.16%
 Canada[18] 37,694,085 39.0% 36.0% 7.6% 2.5% 7.0% 6.0% 1.4% 0.5%
 Chile[19] 18,186,770 56.62% 27.16% 8.78% 1.90% 3.29% 1.63% 0.49% 0.13%
 China[20] 1,397,897,720 30.1% 30.2% 29.1% 9.6% 0.3% 0.4% 0.3% 0.1%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Colombia[21] 49,084,841 56.3% 26.11% 7.28% 1.47% 5.13% 2.7% 0.7% 0.31%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Costa Rica[22] 5,097,988 49.7% 28.5% 12.4% 3.0% 3.4% 1.9% 0.9% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Croatia 4,227,746 29.0% 36.0% 15.0% 5.0% 5.0% 6.0% 3.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Cuba 11,059,062 45.8% 33.5% 10.2% 2.9% 3.6% 2.8% 1.0% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Cyprus[23] 1,266,676 35.22% 40.35% 11.11% 4.72% 3.85% 3.48% 0.87% 0.40%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Czech Republic[24] 10,702,498 27.0% 36.0% 15.0% 7.0% 5.0% 6.0% 3.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Democratic Republic of the Congo 101,780,263 59.5% 21.3% 15.2% 2.4% 1.0% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1%
 Denmark[25] 5,869,410 35.0% 37.0% 8.0% 4.0% 6.0% 7.0% 2.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Dominican Republic 10,499,707 46.2% 26.4% 16.9% 3.1% 3.7% 2.1% 1.4% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Ecuador 16,904,867 75.0% 14.0% 7.1% 0.5% 2.38% 0.7% 0.3% 0.02%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Egypt[26] 104,124,440 31.94% 35.12% 23.12% 9.74% n/a n/a n/a n/a
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data El Salvador[27] 6,481,102 62.0% 23.0% 11.0% 1.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.7% 0.3%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Estonia[28] 1,228,624 29.5% 30.8% 20.7% 6.3% 4.3% 4.5% 3.0% 0.9%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Ethiopia 108,113,150 39.0% 28.0% 21.0% 5.0% 3.0% 2.0% 1.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Fiji 935,974 43.0% 33.3% 16.5% 4.8% 1.0% 0.7% 0.5% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Finland[29] 5,571,665 28.0% 35.0% 16.0% 7.0% 5.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 France[30] 67,848,156 36.5% 38.2% 7.7% 2.5% 6.5% 6.8% 1.4% 0.4%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Gabon[31] 2,284,912 57.55% 20.52% 17.19% 2.54% 1.35% 0.48% 0.41% 0.06%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Georgia[32] 4,933,674 34.8% 32.3% 11.9% 6.0% 6.2% 5.7% 2.1% 1.0%
 Germany[33] 80,159,662 35.0% 37.0% 9.0% 4.0% 6.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Ghana 29,340,248 53.8% 17.6% 18.3% 2.8% 4.5% 1.3% 1.3% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Greece 10,607,051 37.8% 32.2% 11.0% 4.0% 6.6% 5.7% 2.0% 0.7%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Guinea 12,527,440 46.88% 21.64% 22.86% 4.52% 2.0% 0.9% 1.0% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Honduras 9,235,340 57.5% 27.0% 7.8% 2.5% 2.7% 1.7% 0.6% 0.2%
 Hong Kong 7,249,907 41.5% 26.13% 25.34% 6.35% 0.32% 0.17% 0.14% 0.05%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Hungary 9,771,827 27.0% 33.0% 16.0% 8.0% 5.0% 7.0% 3.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Iceland[34] 350,734 46.8% 27.2% 9.0% 2.0% 8.2% 4.8% 1.6% 0.4%
 India[35] 1,339,330,514 28.0% 25.8% 32.0% 14.7% 2.03% 1.36% 2.0% 0.48%
 Indonesia 267,026,366 36.82% 25.87% 28.85% 7.96% 0.18% 0.13% 0.15% 0.04%
 Iran 84,923,314 33.5% 27.0% 22.2% 7.0% 4.0% 3.0% 2.5% 0.8%
 Iraq 38,872,655 25.5% 25.0% 32.6% 7.4% 3.6% 2.7% 2.7% 0.9%
 Ireland[36] 5,176,569 47.0% 26.0% 9.0% 2.0% 8.0% 5.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 Israel[37] 8,675,475 32.0% 34.0% 17.0% 7.0% 3.0% 4.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 Italy 62,402,659 39.0% 36.0% 7.5% 2.5% 7.0% 6.0% 1.5% 0.5%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Ivory Coast[38] 28,088,455 47.24% 20.19% 21.7% 3.82% 3.73% 1.54% 1.48% 0.3%
 Jamaica[39] 2,808,570 47.0% 23.0% 20.0% 3.0% 3.5% 2.0% 1.0% 0.5%
 Japan[40] 125,507,472 29.9% 39.8% 19.9% 9.9% 0.15% 0.2% 0.1% 0.05%
 Jordan[41] 10,909,567 33.03% 32.86% 16.56% 6.28% 4.4% 3.97% 2.06% 0.84%
 Kazakhstan 19,091,949 30.7% 29.8% 24.2% 8.3% 2.3% 2.2% 1.8% 0.7%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Kenya 53,527,936 45.6% 25.2% 21.28% 4.2% 1.8% 1.0% 0.9% 0.02%
 Laos[42] 7,574,356 37.52% 19.73% 35.36% 6.85% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.05%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Latvia 1,881,232 30.6% 31.0% 17.0% 6.0% 5.4% 6.0% 3.0% 1.0%
 Lebanon 5,469,612 38.4% 32.3% 9.5% 3.2% 7.7% 6.5% 1.7% 0.7%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Libya 6,890,535 42.64% 28.86% 11.19% 4.5% 6.26% 4.24% 1.64% 0.67%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Liechtenstein 39,137 34.0% 37.0% 10.0% 4.0% 6.0% 6.5% 1.8% 0.7%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Lithuania 2,731,464 36.0% 33.0% 11.0% 4.0% 7.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Luxemburg[43] 628,381 35.0% 37.0% 9.0% 4.0% 6.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 Macao 614,458 41.5% 26.1% 25.4% 6.3% 0.33% 0.17% 0.15% 0.05%
 Malaysia 32,652,083 34.32% 30.35% 27.37% 7.46% 0.17% 0.15% 0.14% 0.04%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Malta 457,267 38.0% 41.0% 7.0% 3.0% 5.0% 4.5% 1.0% 0.5%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Mauritania[44] 4,005,475 46.3% 26.68% 17.47% 3.85% 2.8% 1.6% 1.1% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Mauritius 1,379,365 38.3% 26.0% 25.0% 6.7% 1.7% 1.0% 1.0% 0.3%
 Mexico[45] 128,649,565 59.09% 26.23% 8.53% 1.73% 2.73% 1.21% 0.40% 0.08%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Moldova[46] 3,364,496 28.5% 31.8% 17.6% 7.0% 5.0% 6.0% 3.0% 1.1%
 Mongolia[47] 3,198,913 38.45% 22.89% 29.93% 7.83% 0.35% 0.21% 0.27% 0.07%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Morocco 35,561,654 42.3% 40.8% 14.0% 4.0% 4.5% 3.1% 1.5% 0.4%
 Myanmar 56,590,071 35.7% 23.8% 32.7% 6.95% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.05%
 Namibia[48] 2,678,191 50.58% 20.49% 20.21% 1.02% 4.22% 1.71% 1.69% 0.08%
 Nepal 30,327,877 35.2% 36.3% 27.1% 2.6% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
 Netherlands[49] 17,280,397 38.2% 36.6% 7.7% 2.5% 6.8% 6.4% 1.3% 0.5%
 New Zealand[50] 4,925,477 38.0% 32.0% 9.0% 3.0% 9.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Nicaragua[51] 6,243,931 62.0% 20.0% 11.0% 4.0% 1.0% 1.0% 0.7% 0.3%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Nigeria[52] 219,463,862 50.23% 21.61% 19.59% 3.47% 2.7% 1.16% 1.05% 0.19%
 North Korea 25,643,466 27.15% 31.08% 30.15% 11.32% 0.08% 0.1% 0.1% 0.03%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data North Macedonia 2,125,971 30.0% 34.0% 15.0% 6.0% 5.0% 6.0% 3.0% 1.0%
 Norway[53] 5,467,439 33.2% 41.6% 6.8% 3.4% 5.8% 7.4% 1.2% 0.6%
 Pakistan[ਹਵਾਲਾ ਲੋੜੀਂਦਾ] 238,181,034 30.04% 21.53% 30.24% 8.83% 3.1% 2.22% 3.13% 0.91%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Papua New Guinea 7,259,456 48.0% 37.2% 9.6% 2.8% 1.0% 0.8% 0.4% 0.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Paraguay[54] 7,272,639 56.07% 28.32% 4.72% 1.38% 5.89% 2.97% 0.49% 0.15%
 Peru[55] 31,914,989 70.0% 18.4% 7.8% 1.6% 1.4% 0.5% 0.28% 0.02%
 Philippines[56] 109,180,815 45.9% 22.9% 24.9% 5.97% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.03%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Poland[57] 38,282,325 31.0% 32.0% 15.0% 7.0% 6.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 Portugal[58] 10,302,674 36.2% 39.8% 6.6% 2.9% 6.1% 6.8% 1.1% 0.5%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Romania[59] 21,230,362 28.0% 37.0% 14.0% 7.0% 5.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 Russia[60] 145,478,097 29.92% 31.19% 17.17% 6.72% 5.28% 5.51% 3.03% 1.18%
 Saudi Arabia[61] 34,173,498 47.8% 23.9% 17.0% 4.0% 4.0% 2.0% 1.0% 0.3%
 Serbia 7,012,165 31.92% 35.28% 12.6% 4.2% 6.08% 6.72% 2.4% 0.8%
 Singapore[62] 6,209,660 44.7% 23.9% 24.5% 5.6% 0.6% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Slovakia[63] 5,440,602 27.2% 35.7% 15.3% 6.8% 4.8% 6.3% 2.7% 1.2%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Slovenia 2,102,678 31.0% 33.0% 12.0% 6.0% 7.0% 7.0% 3.0% 1.0%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Somalia[64] 12,094,640 52.8% 19.36% 12.32% 3.52% 7.2% 2.64% 1.68% 0.48%
 South Africa[65] 56,463,617 39.0% 32.0% 12.0% 3.0% 6.0% 5.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 South Korea 51,835,110 27.9% 33.87% 26.92% 10.98% 0.1% 0.13% 0.08% 0.02%
 Sri Lanka[66] 23,044,123 43.42% 21.0% 25.78% 5.13% 2.12% 1.04% 1.25% 0.26%
 Spain[67] 50,015,792 35.0% 36.0% 8.0% 2.5% 9.0% 7.0% 2.0% 0.5%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Sudan 45,561,556 48.0% 27.7% 15.2% 2.8% 3.5% 1.8% 0.8% 0.2%
 Sweden[68] 10,202,491 32.0% 37.0% 10.0% 5.0% 6.0% 7.0% 2.0% 1.0%
  Switzerland[69] 8,403,994 35.0% 38.0% 8.0% 4.0% 6.0% 7.0% 1.0% 1.0%
 Syria 19,398,448 43.0% 30.0% 14.0% 3.7% 5.0% 3.0% 1.0% 0.3%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Taiwan 23,603,049 43.9% 25.9% 23.9% 6.0% 0.17% 0.1% 0.01% 0.02%
 Thailand 68,977,400 40.8% 16.9% 36.8% 4.97% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.03%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Tunisia[70] 11,811,335 41.86% 28.21% 16.38% 4.55% 4.14% 2.79% 1.62% 0.45%
 Turkey[71] 82,017,514 29.8% 37.8% 14.2% 7.2% 3.9% 4.7% 1.6% 0.8%
 Uganda[72] 44,712,143 49.29% 24.11% 20.29% 4.41% 1.01% 0.49% 0.41% 0.09%
 Ukraine 43,922,939 32.0% 34.0% 15.0% 5.0% 5.0% 6.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 United Arab Emirates 9,992,083 44.1% 21.9% 20.9% 4.3% 4.3% 2.1% 2.0% 0.4%
 United Kingdom[73] 65,761,117 35.0% 30.0% 9.0% 2.0% 13.0% 8.0% 2.0% 1.0%
 United States[74] 334,998,398 37.4% 35.7% 8.5% 3.4% 6.6% 6.3% 1.5% 0.6%
 Uzbekistan[75] 30,842,796 29.42% 30.93% 24.98% 9.27% 1.68% 1.77% 1.42% 0.53%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Venezuela[76] 28,644,603 58.3% 28.2% 5.6% 1.9% 3.7% 1.8% 0.4% 0.1%
 Vietnam 98,721,275 41.7% 21.9% 30.8% 4.98% 0.3% 0.1% 0.2% 0.02%
ਫਰਮਾ:Country data Yemen 29,884,405 47.84% 27.5% 15.32% 2.14% 3.66% 2.1% 1.17% 0.16%
 Zimbabwe 14,546,314 63.3% 18.5% 14.6% 0.99% 1.7% 0.5% 0.4% 0.01%
World 7,772,850,805 37.37% 27.24% 22.83% 6.22% 2.69% 2.09% 1.16% 0.4%

ਹਵਾਲੇ[ਸੋਧੋ]

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